Slim, tough fungi growing on wood. They start out white toward the top, then become black as they mature.
This is a male Duskywings.
Red-eyed fly, wings out to the sides, with a black and white striped pattern on its upper body and a checker pattern on its lower body.
Flies with fuzzy yellow/orange legs on dung. There were many of these pretty flies on the dung in a dump area (so I don't know what kind of dung). Their wings were overlapped rather than out to the side like house flies'.