Off of the trail at the UBNA, we were showed the white clover. I learned that white clover is poisonous if damaged. It has three leaves, each exhibiting a v-shape pattern. White clover is used to make clover honey.
We saw some tall buttercups that grow to be 1-3 feet tall. These plants have yellow flowers and have the ability to grow in a variety of habitats. The buttercup can be toxic to grazing animals. We were taken to see the common vetch, which is part of the pea family. Common vetch has dark purple flowers and a distinctive oval leaves. Despite being so common in the Pacific Northwest, Vetch was brought over from Europe. Vetch is a nitrogen-fixing legume, making it a good rotational drop.
We met with someone who gave us some dandelion wine to try. Despite being considered a pest, dandelions are extremely nutritious and can be made into a wide range of different foods.
Our last stop was to see thimbleberry. Thimbleberry is often compared to salmonberry for the similar taste and appearance of the berries. The main differences between the two are the berry fruiting times and the color of the flowers. Thimbleberries tend to have a white flower while salmonberry tends to have pink.
Common vetch (Vicia sativa)
Tall buttercup (Ranunculcus acris)
Thimble berry (Rubus Parviflorus)
Salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis)
My group tour started off at the heron rookery on campus. The first tree that was examined was the Western Red-Cedar. The bark on the tree is a vibrant red color that is very pliable. We learned that the western red cedars isn't a cedar (Cedrus) but part of another family. The western red cedar has been considered useful in medicine as well as in constructing totem pole. Thus, it is considered the "tree of life" by some native american tribes. The next tree we approached was the Giant sequoia. This tree was really big. We were told that these trees can live an average of at least 600 years. At the UW farm, we saw the horse chestnut tree. We examined the scales on the bark. The horse chestnuts has a distinctive leaf shape and prickly chestnuts. Along the Burke Gilman trail, we saw a Pacific madrone. The madrone's leaves can be chewed to elevate cramps. Also, the trunk is quite cold due to a lack of dead bark. Dead bark helps moderate the touch of the tree to the temperature of its current surroundings. Without this layer, the tree's temperature isn't as variable and can feel cold to touch. Also we saw the a big conch maple, Alder, and Ginkgo tree. Though the Gingko is not native to the U.S., the tree was the most interesting due to its pretty leaves and interesting smell that female trees make that resembles rancid butter.
The mosses and lichen tour started at a tree behind Kane hall. Here, we saw a play detailing the relationships of lichen and fungi. It was very clever and informative. We then headed over to a tree on memorial drive that was covered with a myriad of different lichen and moss. Finally, we headed over to the uw farm where we saw red hood moss and common feather moss land other various moss that would be difficult to identify without a microscope.
Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendrum gigantem)
Western Red Cedar (Thuja Plicata)
Bigcone pine (pinus couteri)
Pacific Madrone (Arbutus Menziesii)
Horse Chestnut (Aesculus)
Ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba)
Red roof moss (Ceratodon purpureus)
Common feather moss (Kindbergia praelonga)
Weather: clear skies, warm and sunny. Temperatures were about 72 degrees F
The area we walked through initially was covered in carious types of grass. There were large boulders through the open area. There were a few Pondersa pines and Douglas firs in the area, but for the most part the ground was covered in shrubs. There were many forms and understory type plants such as Bolsum root, common peony, ocean spray, and death canvas. We hikes up the giant boulders and saw some western fence lizards sun bathing on the rocks. The weather being so warm attracted many lizards to these rocks. We were able to catch and identify the sex of a few fence lizards using a long stick with a string noose ties on to it. We also managed to catch an orange tip butterfly. As we scaled inward, the Douglas firs become more prominent and the forest became denser with closely packed vegetation.
Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii)
Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa)
Peonies (Paeonia brownii)
Ocean spray (Holdiscus discolor)
Death Canvas (Zigadenis venenosy)
Indian Plaintbrush (Castillesa hispiela)
Orange tip butterfly (Anthochoris sara)
Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentals)
Weather: Clear skies with temperatures in the 60s
Time: 11:30 am
Walking through the forest of Red cedars and western hemlocks, we cam across a small area for beach access. On the rocks in the water, somebody came across the exoskeleton of a stone fly. This was a lot larger in size than the mayfly that were crawling on partially submerged rocks. Walking through the forest, we came across various different understory, such as wild ginger, forget me nots, and devil's club. On the fallen log off of the trail, we came across a variety of different mushrooms including a polypore,inky cap, and oyster mushroom. The most notable mushroom was the vibrant orange phaeolous mushroom growing out of a tree stump. This white rot mushroom was hard with a oyster-like pattern on it. The last plant we came across was the poison hemlock. We discussed how that it isn't poisonous to touch by can be harmful if ingested. Additionally, it is part of the carrot family.
Stone fly-Order plecoptera
wild ginger Asarum caudatum
Devil's club oplopanax horridum
Western red cedar thuja plicate
Western hemlock tsuga heterophyll
mayfly Rhtrogina germaice
oyster mushroom pleurotus ostreatus
Weather: Clear skies with temperatures in the mid 50's
We stopped off of the highway in a densely forested region of index. Since the region gets about 60 inches of rainfall a year, it comes to no surprise that the trees were almost entirely covered in various lichen, moss, and some licorice fern. We discussed the relationship the big leaf maple has with the epiphytic licorice fern. The deciduous big leaf maple drops its leaves during the winter time allowing for the licorice fern adequate water and sunlight. The licorice fern drops its leaves during the summer. The ground cover had wood and sword ferns, false lily of the vally, diaspurum, stinging nettle, and bleeding hearth. I noticed that serrated edges of the stinging nettle, and made a mental note to remember it's appearance. As we were about to leave, we came across two white rot mushrooms: Artist Conk and Polyporus radius. Despite surviving off of the same fallen log, they have pretty distinctive appearances.
Big Leaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum)
Licorice fern (Polypodium glycorize)
Wood fern (Dryopteris expanse)
Sword fern (Polysitchum munitum)
Stinging nettle (urtica dioica)
Pacific Bleeding heart (Dicentra formosa)
Hookers fairy bess (Disporum hokeri)
False lily of the valley (Maiantheum dilatum)
Artist Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)
Weather: clear blue skies with a light breeze. Temperatures in the mid 40's F
The ground directly off of the van was a rocky gravel but towards the edges, the ground was dense with called sticks and shrubs. The The first plant we identifies was Rhammus Purshiame. The leaves were long and a glossy green. In this area, there were an abundance in understory with less variety in trees. We saw a Linneae plant with two hanging twin flowers. The leaves were octal and the stem seemed delicate. The trees in the area were primarily cottonwood and alder, with some big leaf maples. We walked by some Japanese Knotweed growing out of stalks from the ground. We continued to the river back were somebody caught a bumble bee. Susan demonstrated how scotch broom flowers can only be pollinated by heavy bees.
The River bank had many cottonwood trees with visible roots. This clearly shows that the bank frequently floods. Th cotton wood grows their roots above ground in these situations to get nutrients from the water. Along the pathways, there were a lot of wood ferns emerging and already established, as well as indian plum and some low-lying sweet vernal grass.
Red Alder Alnus rubra
Big Leaf Maple Acer macrophyllum
Japanese Knotwood Polygrum cuspidatum
Scotch Broom Cystisus scoparius
Weather: partially cloudy with temperatures in the low 60s
The ground was scatted with wood chips and some small prickly milk thistle. The Parasola plicatilis were found in small groups scattered abundantly throughout the field. They were at all stares of life with younger parasol being more stub-like and a brighter orange, and then becoming less saturated with age. The cap appears smooth while the mushroom is younger and becomes more pleated as the parasol matures. Parasolas are small and fragile. The caps are about 1.5 inches when gully grown, and the height of the mushrooms are about 3 inches. I saw a small patch of Leratiomyces percevalii. The stems are thicker and hardier looking then the parasol. They were also less common than the parasol. I could only find about 3 of them in the field. One of the Leratiomyces appeared to have been eaten by a slug. This deduction was based upon the the cap being clearly damaged by a scavenger and the entire body of the mushroom was covered in a clear slime. The mushrooms were about 4 inches tall with a 1 inch wide stem. The Dacrymyces stillatus growing on the hardwood fence tends to prefer conifers. It was bright orange and jelly-like. If wet, the Dacrymyces will puff up and appeared to absorb the water. This fungus is vibrant and slightly translucent. It is very small, with each jelly being about a couple of centimeters in length.
Weather: Temperature in the green house was about 65 degrees F
We met at the Uw greenhouse today to look at different plants and their evolutionary adaptations to their native environments. First, Richard gave us a tour of the rainforest region and showed us a Lodoicea maldivica seed and plant. The seed can weigh up to 60lbs and is considered the largest seed in the world. The seed resembles a coconut in hardness and color. The leaves of the plant are pleated to give them strength and to funnel water directly into the roots when it rains. He showed us Monstera delciosa, which is a tropical plant that initially only grows in the dark. Once the vine finds light, it becomes phototropic. The leaves formed are large and contain many prominent holes.
We proceeded to meet with Susan in the Desert themed region of the greenhouse. She showed us welwishia, a native plant to south western Africa. There were multiple plants of various sexes. Since the plant is native the the Nubian desert, the plant evolved sunlight reflective leaves. These plants can also live up to 2,000 years old. Welwitshia has a an odd central base with long tenticle-like leaves growing outward. Susan discussed how green plants lose most of their water through evapotranspiration. The water evaporates through the plants leaf pores then they are open to take in CO2 for photosynthesis. To maintain their water, some plants in the desert photosynthesize without the need of of pores. Our next stop was a bog-like environment that is acidic and low in nutrients. In these environments, big plants need to be carnivorous or epiphytes in order to survive.
We met with Josh, and he showed us the miracle berry that inhibits your sour taste receptors. Therefore, after tasting the berry, you can eat a lemon and have it be sweet. The believed reasoning behind this berry adaptation was so the predators would then eat a lot of food after ingesting the berry, and thus letting the miracle berry seeds to be spread over a wider range.
Miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcifum)
Weather: Temperatures were in the high 40s low 50s F with significant rain fall and cloud cover
We stood in the middle of a small forested region on the UW campus next to the medicinal herb garden. The forest consisted of many different types of trees including: Douglas fir, Western Hemlock, Big leaf male, Western Red Cedar. The ground cover was mainly covered in english ivy with the occasional patch of sword fern and oregon grape. In the tall, leaf-less trees above, we observed many nests belonging to great blue herons. We witnessed a male heron attempting to mate with a female but was driven away by another, more dominant male heron.
Douglas Fir (Psudotseuga menziesii)
Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterphyllum)
Big leaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum)
Western Red cedar (Thuja plicata)
English Ivy (Hedera helix)
Dull Oregon grade (Mahonia nervosa)
Sword fern (Polystichum munitum
Great blue heron (Aredea herodias)
Weather: Clear with the occasional clouds. Temperatures in the mid 30s F
There were thick pockets of snow everywhere that were about a foot deep. We split up the groups and embarked on the trail of shadows. The trail surrounded a large steaming pond that was scattered with beaver dams. The pond was a hot spring that was constantly letting out CO2 bubbles giving it a boiling effect. However, the water was only a little bit warmer than the outside temperature. The beaver dams throughout make the pond appear to be terraced. Our group met briefly underneath a Western hemlock to discuss the length and orientation of its needles. The hemlock has planar needles that varied in length. The branches were soft to stroke. We proceeded along the trail observing the red clay sediment that followed the river. The sediment was red because it was rich in iron. I wondered how the red sediment would affect the plants gaining nutrients from the soil and water. We passed a large Western Yew with red bark and planar pines. The yew was mossy and damp like most of the surrounding area. The vegetation on the ground was covered with a blanket of snow. Some of the plants that were able to emerge from the snow were the sword and deer fern. The deer fern took shelter in a cave that a fallen log had provided. The deer fern has diamond shaped leaflets around the branch that were connected down the center.
Many of the trees in the region were bare of leaves and some were even covered in large fungi.
Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)
Western Yew (Taxus brevifolia)
Witch's hair lichen (Polystichum munithim)
Deer Fern (Blechnum spicant)