Common Mullein. Will probably be better when it really gets started, but I couldn't resist this shot now.
This is called Spotted Knapweed, but I think that's an awfully ugly name for such a beautiful flower. Unfortunately, it is considered an invasive weed.
Black Knapweed: black involucre below the flower head; usually no spreading rays
Spotted Knapweed (above): short spreading rays, divided leaves
Brown Knapweed: brown involucre below the flowerhead; long, showy spreading rays
ID, flower & bug? Abundant, sandy soil around seashore marsh. Flower is ~2 cm across. Wish I'd gotten a shot without the "bonus" bug -- didn't even see it as I was taking the pictures.