Female common yellowthroat, yellow warbler or a female wilson's? I saw and heard plenty males of both species in the area.
Not sure exactly what spp this is, maybe a Yellow Rumped Warbler?
Of the Audobon's varitey
one of my favorite natives
Likely a dusky footed woodrat nest, as I have seen the critters in the area before, but I only saw the nest this time.
Possibly a sub species, not really sure, I've never seen C. purpurea with this coloration.
I believe it's some kind of gall on a willow, don't know a lot about galls, so any feedback would be greatly appreciated