based on the ridge in the middle of the carapace I've IDed this as T. carolina
Beside the road
either biennis or villosa, not sure which
Fairly common along trail.
growing in lawn behind convenience store
Missouri's Champion Bur Oak at McBaine, MO. The circumference of the tree is 287 inches, it is 90 feet tall, and the spread is 130 feet (info from http://mdc.mo.gov/sites/default/files/resources/2010/05/missouri_state_champion_trees_05-14-15.pdf). It is estimated to be between 350 and 400 years old.
base of rocky cliff