big brooms of bunched btanches. pl bg and py can ve secondary hosts. doesn't kill directly quickly. snowload can break branches. value losses in the tree.
Egg gallery lateral as opposed to all others which are vertical. Light colored frags at base typical. Egg gallery quite abit more engraved on the sap wood than other beetles. Attacks true firs
Needles have a bit of a scorched looked. Not so bad unless severe and repeated infection. Adults fly to tree spring. Lay eggs. Eggs turn to larvae. Get inside of needle and use it as a coat of Armour to protect from predators. Feeds on nutrients of other needles
Furthest south along trail
Steep seepage slope with dense camas.
No camas this high