big brooms of bunched btanches. pl bg and py can ve secondary hosts. doesn't kill directly quickly. snowload can break branches. value losses in the tree.
Egg gallery lateral as opposed to all others which are vertical. Light colored frags at base typical. Egg gallery quite abit more engraved on the sap wood than other beetles. Attacks true firs
Needles have a bit of a scorched looked. Not so bad unless severe and repeated infection. Adults fly to tree spring. Lay eggs. Eggs turn to larvae. Get inside of needle and use it as a coat of Armour to protect from predators. Feeds on nutrients of other needles
Symbiotic relationship with fir bark Beetle. Haven't evolved to open up and release spores. Beetle opens it to feed and tgen spreads spores
Main vertical gallery with horizontal galleries coming off. If on fir go chance it's the Beetle. Veiled poly-pore is very good indicator. Woodpecker activity very uncommon
Broken tops. Deciduous trees. Thinning crowns. Stump in the center.
Random galleries. High association with Woodpecker damage. Attacks eye level or higher. Very similar to mountain pine Beetle ie. Pitch tubes. Big difference is peckerholes and random galleries
Very large pitchtubes near base of ponderosa
Furthest south along trail
No camas this high