Zinenko O., Stümpel N., Mazanaeva L.F., Bakiev A., Shiryaev K., Pavlov A., Kotenko T., Kukushkin O., Chikin Y., Duisebayeva T., Nilson G., Orlov N.L., Tuniyev S.B., Ananjeva N.B., Murphy R.W., Joger U., 2015. Mitochondrial phylogeny shows multiple independent ecological transitions and northern dispersion despite of Pleistocene glaciations in meadow and steppe vipers (Vipera ursinii and Vipera renardi). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 84: 85-100.
Vipera berus, the common European adder or common European viper, is a venomous viper species that is extremely widespread and can be found throughout most of Western Europe and as far as East Asia. Known by a host of common names including common adder and common viper, adders have been the subject of much folklore in Britain and other European countries. They are not regarded as especially dangerous; the snake is not aggressive and usually bites...