Cane Toad

Rhinella marina

Summary 5

The cane toad (Rhinella marina), also known as the giant neotropical toad or marine toad, is a large, terrestrial true toad which is native to Central and South America, but has been introduced to various islands throughout Oceania and the Caribbean as well as northern Australia. It is a member of the genus Rhinella but was formerly in the genus Bufo, which includes many different true toad species found throughout Central and South America. The cane...

Diagnosis 6

The cane toad is very large;[1] the females are significantly longer than males,[2] reaching an average length of 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in),[1] with a maximum of 24 cm (9.4 in).[9] Larger toads tend to be found in areas of lower population density.[3] They have a life expectancy of 10 to 15 years in the wild,[4] and can live considerably longer in captivity, with one specimen reportedly surviving for 35 years.[5]

The skin of the cane toad is dry and warty.[1] It has distinct ridges above the eyes, which run down the snout.[18] Individual cane toads can be grey, yellowish, red-brown, or olive-brown, with varying patterns.[6] A large parotoid gland lies behind each eye.[1] The ventral surface is cream-coloured and may have blotches in shades of black or brown. The pupils are horizontal and the irises golden.[10] The toes have a fleshy webbing at their base,[1] and the fingers are free of webbing.[6]

Typically, juvenile cane toads have smooth, dark skin, although some specimens have a red wash. Juveniles lack the adults' large parotoid glands, so they are usually less poisonous.[3] The tadpoles are small and uniformly black, and are bottom-dwellers, tending to form schools.[7] Tadpoles range from 10 to 25 mm (0.39 to 0.98 in) in length.[8]

Conservation 6

Cane toads are invasive and likely hurting Hawaii's ecosystem.

Sources and Credits 6

  1. Robinson 1998
  2. Lee 2001, p. 928
  3. Tyler 1989, p. 117
  4. Tyler 1989, pp. 117–118
  5. Grenard 2007, p. 55
  6. Cameron 2009
  7. Tyler 1976, p. 81
  8. Invasive Species Specialist Group 2006
  10. "Giant Burrowing Frog". Wildlife of Sydney. Australian Museum. April 15, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2009.

Sources and Credits

  1. no rights reserved,
  2. (c) Sam Fraser-Smith, some rights reserved (CC BY),
  3. (c) Andreas Kay, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA),
  4. (c) Bernard DUPONT, some rights reserved (CC BY-SA),
  5. Adapted by calebcam from a work by (c) Wikipedia, some rights reserved (CC BY-SA),
  6. (c) calebcam, some rights reserved (CC BY-ND)

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