45. DIY Zelfbouw Teensybat-VLEN Bat detector/recorder (Vleermuis) Open Source

Samen met Cor Berrevoets heeft Edwin Houwertjes een ‘open source’ zelfbouw vleermuisdetector/recorder ontwikkeld op basis van een Teensy 3.6 developmentboard die ook spectrogrammen weergeeft van de geluiden die je ontvangt. Deze geluiden worden hoorbaar gemaakt in

Heterodyne, Auto Heterodyne, Time expansion.

De Time expansion is min of meer live, de geluiden die je hoort worden afgespeeld in de pauze's tussen de geluiden. Dus geen tien seconden opnemen en dan 100 seconden luisteren, maar direct na een geluid van 4ms dat in 40ms afspelen.
Met het toestel kan je op een hoge samplerate opnemen en kun je hem gebruiken als logger, dus automatisch opnemen (in WAV-file) als er een ultrasoon geluid wordt gedetecteerd.
Het hele apparaatje kost qua materiaal nog geen 150 euro, time expansion was nog niet eerder zo goedkoop.

Cor is de man achter de software, Edwin is van de hardware (printplaat ontwerp) en het verbeteren daarvan en het doen van verschillende tests/upgrades. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdvLUm_KueM

Meer informatie voor het bouwen:

https://drive.google.com/drive/u/1/folders/1NRtWXN9gGVnbPbqapPHgUCFOQDGjEV1q

  1. Building Teensy bat detector
  2. Handleiding voor de software
  3. Manual Teensy Bat detector
  4. Microphone enhancements
  5. Teensy final.zip
  6. Teensybat schematic
  7. Ultrasonic test sound
  8. Updateing software.pdf

.

Github link naar de laatste software.

https://github.com/CorBer/teensy_batdetector

Forum link voor discussie.Teensy audio board to higher rates

https://forum.pjrc.com/threads/38988-Bat-detector
https://forum.pjrc.com/threads/38988-Bat-detector/page25
PJRC is the fabrikant van de moederboard

With the new possibility to set the sample rate of the Teensy audio board to higher rates, it should be possible to build a bat detector with the Teensy 3.5/3.6. Thanks chip and Pete for your suggestions and Frank B for the higher sample rate possibilities! :-)

Bats use echolocation with ultrasound and use frequencies from** 12 to 125kHz. Most bats, **however can be detected, if you use a sample rate of 192ksps, that means the usable upper limit frequency is < 96kHz, which is quite nice and covers the vast majority of the bat species occuring worldwide (with the exception of most horseshoe bats). [Audio frequencies > 96kHz are very heavily attenuated in the air anyway, so you would have to be very close to a bat calling at 100kHz (a few meters!) to detect it]: --> so, I think a bat detector detecting frequencies < 96kHz is a very useful thing.

It would be very cool, if we could use the** basic Teensy 3.5/3.6 [sorry, probably not possible with Teensy 3.2 and smaller] with its Teensy audio shield plus an electret mic** (those tiny little ones) without further hardware to detect bats!

First, I think, we have to look at some basic questions, before starting to program the Teensy:

the samples come in such a high rate from the audio lib in that sample rate, that we can only do some very light audio processing, we have only (128/192000) = 667µsec for a block of 128 samples. [FFT256point should be possible, but a 512point or 1024point FFT is probably not possible]
Is there an analog anti-alias filter in front of the ADC of the SGTL5000 Teensy audio board? **If yes, we do not need to work any further in this thread, because that would make it impossible for us to process audio > 48kHz through the audio board.
To lower the processor usage, we could do the following: sample at 192ksps, decimate the audio, process the audio, and interpolate.
Zoom FFT: To get high resolution to look at the bat calls, we need many many points in the FFT, > 1024. That is of course not possible in that high sampling rate, even with the fast Teensy 3.6. We could use a technique called Zoom FFT to have a detailed look at only a small portion of the frequency spectrum with a small FFT (say 256 points). **ZOOM_FFT

Before doing all that, a first start could be: get the audio at 196ksps (queue object) --> software DDS or sinewave object with user adjustable frequency (12 – 96kHz) --> multiply that with the incoming audio --> hear batsound at 0-20kHz : that is called a heterodyne detector

What do you think about this? Any answers to the above questions or any further suggestions/ideas greatly acknowledged!

Frank



Gezien https://news.olemiss.edu/biologists-developing-mobile-app-for-coastal-marine-assessment/

Last pressentation is in English
Open Source Software
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=47m (OpenSource Introduction)

Software and Bats

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=47m (OpenSource Introduction)
Tadarida Open Software Toolbox
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=59m (English)

DIY Zelfbouw Teensybat-VLEN Bat detector/recorder (Vleermuis) Open Source (45)

Tadarida: A Toolbox for Animal Detection on Acoustic Recordings

https://openresearchsoftware.metajnl.com/articles/10.5334/jors.154/

De vierde en laatste VLEN-avond was gisteravond en is opgenomen om terug te kijken via onze site: https://vleermuis.net/meer-weten/nieuws-archief/761-vlen-avond-en-2020-4-staat-online René Janssen & Carlo Wijnen VLEN-avond[en] 2020 VLEN-avond[en] 2020
4.0 vanaf 2.18 min Edwin Houwertjes Edwin Houwertjes presenteert in een kort filmpje zijn, samen met Cor Berrevoets ontwikkelde ‘open source’ zelfbouw vleermuisdetector/recorder ontwikkeld op basis van een Teensy 3.6 developmentboard die ook spectrogrammen weergeeft van de geluiden die je ontvangt. Deze geluiden worden hoorbaar gemaakt in Heterodyne, Auto Heterodyne, Time expansion. Met het toestel kan je op een hoge samplerate opnemen en kun je hem gebruiken als logger, dus automatisch opnemen (in WAV-file) als er een ultrasoon geluid wordt gedetecteerd.
4.1 vanaf 11.44 min Johann Prescher & Dirk O

Grootoorvleermuizen leggen grote afstand af door coulissenlandschap om in moeras te foerageren.'
Tijdens onderzoek naar effectiviteit hopovers als verbinding in coulissenlandschap voor Gewone Grootoorvleermuis werd ontdekt dat deze vleermuizen lange afstanden aflegden om te foerageren in moerasgebied. Tot voor kort werd aangenomen dat Gewone Grootoorvleermuizen niet zulke grote afstanden afleggen.

4.2 vanaf 52.18 min Marc van der Sijpe

Marc van der Sijpe en Claire Hermans : 'Introductie in auto-recording en auto-identificatie en Explaination how works Tadarida and the BTO classifier of Tadarida'
Deze presentatie wordt in het Nederlands en Engels gegeven. Als eerste geeft Marc Van De Sijpe een introductie over auto- recording en auto-identificatie, waaronder Tadarida, een Open Sourceclassificatie in de programmeer- en statistiektaal R. Daarna neemt Claire ons in het Engels mee hoe Tadarida werkt, waarna ook de BTO classifier wordt gedemonstreerd, Tadarida-L (Toolbox Animal Detection on Acoustic Recordings) is HulpSoftware, Open Source een Toolbox, altruistisch geschreven door Yves Bas waarbij je zelf je eigen classifier software kunt schrijven. Het werkt adhv herkenning van signalen. Used for birds, bush crickets and bats.
Tadarida-D=Detection
Tadarida-C=Classification
Tadarida-L=Labeling
https://github.com/YvesBas
In other programs you can get one ID for a wav file but now it can give more IDs onthe sound events. You get a probabilty rating for the Identification. For the final output it will summarrie it. Currently the NIOZ database is not strong enough but NIOZ wants to have identification and position of the bats.
Stewart Newson uit Norfolk heeft een Classifier geschreven voor Belgium and UK.
STewart heeft voor de UK een classifier gebouwd om de UK soorten te determineren. Classifier UK is een kleinbeetje uitbreidt met BENELUX soorten en de classifier leert van zijn fouten. https://photos.app.goo.gl/iCaBSZHkzw9cNW9K9 AutoID.Bats.OpenSource.Tadarida

4.3 vanaf 1h41min18sec Claire Hermans project: 'Light on landscape' waarbij ze vertelt over de werking van Microphone-arrays om vliegpaden van vleermuizen te reconstrueren.

Posted by ahospers ahospers, December 19, 2020 19:44

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=11m44s
De eerste lezing (vanaf 11.44 min) is door Johann Prescher & Dirk Oosterholt : 'Grootoorvleermuizen leggen grote afstand af door coulissenlandschap om in moeras te foerageren.'
Tijdens onderzoek naar effectiviteit hopovers als verbinding in coulissenlandschap voor Gewone Grootoorvleermuis werd ontdekt dat deze vleermuizen lange afstanden aflegden om te foerageren in moerasgebied. Tot voor kort werd aangenomen dat Gewone Grootoorvleermuizen niet zulke grote afstanden afleggen.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=52m
De tweede lezing (vanaf 52.18 min) is door Marc van der Sijpe en Claire Hermans : 'Introductie in auto-recording en auto-identificatie en Explaination how works Tadarida and the BTO classifier of Tadarida'
Deze presentatie wordt in het Nederlands en Engels gegeven. Als eerste geeft Marc Van De Sijpe een introductie over auto- recording en auto-identificatie, waaronder Tadarida, een Open Sourceclassificatie in de programmeer- en statistiektaal R. Daarna neemt Claire ons in het Engels mee hoe Tadarida werkt, waarna ook de BTO classifier wordt gedemonstreerd

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=101m Effect of light intensity on Habitat loss De derde lezing (vanaf 1.41.17uur) is wederom door Claire Hermans en geeft een preview op haar project: 'Light on landscape' waarbij ze vertelt over de werking van Microphone-arrays om vliegpaden van vleermuizen te reconstrueren.

https://openresearchsoftware.metajnl.com/articles/10.5334/jors.154/

Posted by ahospers 3 months ago (Flag)
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How to start a new BAT Classification database (Classifier) Together.
Are there people interessted in building a database.
Mark gave some identified recordings. With this TADARIDA L
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=111m
https://openresearchsoftware.metajnl.com/articles/10.5334/jors.154/

There is an R programm..Any user that subscribes can upload a ffile in a simple window to the Cloud in England and send back a .csv with the result. The volunteers in the UK throw away their recordins so now they are storing the uploading the files in the cloud. The identification will be stored in the UK Waarneming.nl. People can tell if the detection is wrong and the R programm can be adapted. Unknown if it will be Open Source if not Funding not Open Source. Free for volunteers
REQUIREMENTS:
Audio Bat Wav file with the namespecies and location of the bat in the file
NEM VT has recordings

Posted by ahospers 3 months ago (Flag)
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Book, PDF
Bestimmung von Fledermausrufaufnahmen und Kriterien für die Wertung von akustischen Artnachweisen - Teil 1
The original FFT is processed every 0.67msec. If you use a zoom factor of 4, you only take every fourth sample. Thus, it needs four times longer until you have acquired enough samples for the FFT, thus 2.67msec. Now, the trick is that you do not wait until you have all the samples collected, but you allow for „overlap“ in the samples and perform the FFT with the same rhythm of 0.67msec. [please note that this also takes four times the processing power compared to non-overlapping samples for the FFT and also takes more memory]

I have collected more information on the ZoomFFT in this Wiki:
https://github.com/df8oe/UHSDR/wiki/...ode-=-Zoom-FFT

I am not experienced in programming audio library blocks, but my gut feeling is, it could be easier to just use a queue object from the lib to get the samples and perform all the calculations in the main loop and not inside an audio lib object (because there are different sample rates involved). However, for people also interested in using the ZoomFFT, if you design a specific audio library object, you will get much more credit ;-).

Best wishes,

Frank DD4WH
https://www.bestellen.bayern.de/application/applstarter?APPL=eshop&DIR=eshop&ACTIONxSETVAL(artdtl.htm,APGxNODENR:34,AARTxNR:lfu_nat_00378,AARTxNODENR:357135,USERxBODYURL:artdtl.htm,KATALOG:StMUG,AKATxNAME:StMUG,ALLE:x)=X

BTW: this brandnew publication will rapidly become the professional standard for the identification of bat calls from spectrograms in Germany. Maybe it also helps others with ID of bats in Central Europe.
https://www.bestellen.bayern.de/appl...tMUG,ALLE:x)=X

Bestimmung von Fledermausrufaufnahmen und Kriterien für die Wertung von akustischen Artnachweisen - Teil 1

=====================

A little off-topic, OK, but now that the bat detector works, you need some info about bats and their bioacoustical properties and how to identify them by their ultrasound calls.

This is the "bible" of bat bioacoustics, if you want to know everything about bats and their calls:

Barataud et al. (2015): Acoustic ecology of European bats: Species identification, study of their habitats and foraging behaviour. -
http://www.nhbs.com/title/199366/aco...-european-bats --> not only for european bat friends, the bioacoustics & methods section is universal

There are many many nice websites on batcalls, here is a subjective choice:

http://www.batcalls.com/

http://blog.batdetective.org/

http://www.batecho.eu/

https://www.researchgate.net/profile...ication_detail

If you live in the northern hemisphere, we are very near to the end of the bat season, before the bats go to their wintering grounds. But if you live in a city, it could be worth going outside when the sun goes down and try to detect the last bats of the mating season doing their courtship calls.

Have fun with the Teensy and with bat detection,

===========
This is the "bible" of bat bioacoustics, if you want to know everything about bats and their calls:

Barataud et al. (2015): Acoustic ecology of European bats: Species identification, study of their habitats and foraging behaviour. -
http://www.nhbs.com/title/199366/aco...-european-bats --> not only for european bat friends, the bioacoustics & methods section is universal

There are many many nice websites on batcalls, here is a subjective choice:

http://www.batcalls.com/

http://blog.batdetective.org/

http://www.batecho.eu/

https://www.researchgate.net/profile...ication_detail

If you live in the northern hemisphere, we are very near to the end of the bat season, before the bats go to their wintering grounds. But if you live in a city, it could be worth going outside when the sun goes down and try to detect the last bats of the mating season doing their courtship calls.

https://www.bestellen.bayern.de/application/eshop_app000005?SID=1615997943&ACTIONxSETVAL(artdtl.htm,APGxNODENR:34,AARTxNODENR:193326,USERxARTIKEL:artlist1.htm)=Z

Posted by ahospers 3 months ago (Flag)
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Sonochiro (Biotope) is ontwikkeld door Yves Bas maar is Tadarida-L gegaan. Aanbevolen door Petterson. Herkent 63%.

Studenten aan de UK Universiteit hebben Auto Rec hardware AudioMoth ontwikkeld (Open Acoustic Devices) een klein toestelletje dat flink aan populariteit aan het winnen is. https://www.openacousticdevices.info/audiomoth

BatIdent is het Duitse programma van EcoCops dat bij BatCorder hoort en dat erg goed scoort op herkenning (81%).

Kaleidoscoop op 71%, Tadarida is zeker niet slechter dan Kaleidoscoop als de opnamen maar goed zijn.

BatExplorer is het programma van de BatLogger en herkent 53%.

Tadarida-L (Toolbox Animal Detection on Acoustic Recordings) is HulpSoftware, Open Source een Toolbox, altruistisch geschreven door Yves Bas waarbij je zelf je eigen classifier software kunt schrijven. Het werkt adhv herkenning van signalen. Used for birds, bush crickets and bats.
Tadarida-D=Detection
Tadarida-C=Classification
Tadarida-L=Labeling
https://github.com/YvesBas
In other programs you can get one ID for a wav file but now it can give more IDs onthe sound events. You get a probabilty rating for the Identification. For the final output it will summarrie it. Currently the NIOZ database is not strong enough but NIOZ wants to have identification and position of the bats.

Stewart Newson Norfolk Classifier in Belgium and UK.
STewart heeft voor de UK een classifier gebouwd om de UK soorten te determineren. Classifier UK uitbreiden met BENELUX soorten en classifier leert van zijn fouten. Tadarida is zeker niet slechter dan Kaleidoscoop als de opnamen maar goed zijn.

https://openresearchsoftware.metajnl.com/articles/10.5334/jors.154/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5C3wLsyGdE&t=50m

https://photos.app.goo.gl/iCaBSZHkzw9cNW9K9

Auto Rec Auto ID software

Auto Rec Auto ID software

De tweede lezing (vanaf 52.18 min) is door Marc van der Sijpe en Claire Hermans : 'Introductie in auto-recording en auto-identificatie en Explaination how works Tadarida and the BTO classifier of Tadarida'
Deze presentatie wordt in het Nederlands en Engels gegeven. Als eerste geeft Marc Van De Sijpe een introductie over auto- recording en auto-identificatie, waaronder Tadarida, een Open Sourceclassificatie in de programmeer- en statistiektaal R. Daarna neemt Claire ons in het Engels mee hoe Tadarida werkt, waarna ook de BTO classifier wordt gedemonstreerd.

De derde lezing (vanaf 1.41.17uur) is wederom door Claire Hermans en geeft een preview op haar project: 'Light on landscape' waarbij ze vertelt over de werking van Microphone-arrays om vliegpaden van vleermuizen te reconstrueren.

https://photos.app.goo.gl/iCaBSZHkzw9cNW9K9

In Frankrijk is ook een Monitoring project gebaseerd op Tadarida en ze willen hun Franse herkennigns database ook niet ter beschikking stellen. https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2041-210X.13198

Posted by ahospers 3 months ago (Flag)
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Deze meneer heet ook Stuart Newson en je kan er automatisch elke bat, bush-cricket and small mammal call mee determineren

The acoustic identification of small terrestrial mammals in Britain

By - Stuart Newson, Neil Middleton, Huma Pearce
Small mammals are often recorded as by-catch during bat surveys, and here lies a potential non-invasive tool for surveying the small terrestrial mammals of Britain. Stuart Newson, Neil Middleton and Huma Pearce describe how they built an extensive library of native and non-native small mammal recordings, and then take a closer look at the distinguishing identification features of their calls.

Visit the NHBS Conservation Hub to read a more detailed overview of the article, as well as more information regarding recommended reading and equipment for use in small mammal surveys.

Audio clips to accompany the article can be downloaded here, where you can also access the BTO Acoustic Pipeline – this tool allows for the upload of sound recordings and will automatically detect and identify any bat, bush-cricket and small mammal call.

Britain is home to several species of small terrestrial mammal, defined for the purposes of this article as the rats, mice, voles, dormice and shrews, and referred to hereafter simply as ‘small mammals’. Some, such as the Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus, are widespread and common, while others, such as the Hazel Dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius, are far more localised. All are difficult to observe in the wild, and it is usually necessary to perform invasive capture techniques in order to confirm their presence.

https://www.britishwildlife.com/article/volume-32-number-3-page-186-194

Posted by optilete 2 months ago (Flag)
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https://www.bto.org/sites/default/files/bwm32-3-small-mammal-id-appendix.pdf
https://www.bto.org/sites/default/files/bto-acoustic-pipeline-user-manual-1.pdf

The pipeline currently focusses on 24 species of European bat, but also identifies 13 small mammal species and 11 bush-cricket species, where these are recorded as by-catch. Where recorded, birds are currently assigned to class (e.g. bird species). We are adding new taxa all the time. Read more about the scope of the BTO Acoustic Pipeline.

https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/2041-210X.12720

Posted by optilete 2 months ago (Flag)
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https://www.nhbs.com/blog/acoustic-identification-small-mammals

As static bat detectors have become more widely used, there are now many thousands of hours’ worth of nocturnal recordings captured each year from a vast spread of locations. This level of coverage has not only improved our ability to monitor bat populations, but also offers the potential to gather information on other animals that communicate at the same ultrasonic frequencies as bats. The calls of bush-crickets, for example, are commonly picked up as ‘by-catch’ during bat surveys, which has allowed the development of software that automatically recognises any cricket calls in a recording and assigns them to individual species.

In the December issue of British Wildlife, Stuart Newson, Neil Middleton and Huma Pearce explore the previously untapped potential of acoustics for the survey of small terrestrial mammals – rats, mice, voles, dormice and shrews. Small mammals use their calls for a variety of purposes, including courtship, aggressive encounters with rivals and communication between parents and their offspring. To the human ear, the high-pitched squeaks of different species sound much alike, but closer examination reveals them to be highly complex, extending beyond the range of our hearing into the ultrasonic and showing great variation in structure.

Mammal terrariums used for holding individuals overnight in the recording ‘studio’.
But is it possible to distinguish the calls of different species? To answer this question, the authors began the time-consuming task of building a call library by taking recordings of all Britain’s native (and some non-native) small mammals. Call-analysis software was then used to examine the recordings and look for consistent differences between species, with some fascinating results – the calls of shrews, for example, can be readily separated from those of rodents by their warbling/twittering quality, while the house mouse typically calls at a higher frequency than any other species. Remarkably, it appears overall that the vocalisations of most species have their own diagnostic features, and that, with care, it should be possible to identify a high proportion of calls to species level.

Recorded calls of (a) Brown & (b) Black Rats
Small mammals are unobtrusive and hard to observe, which means that even the more familiar species, such as the Brown Rat, are severely under-recorded. The ability to detect and identify small mammals by their calls therefore offers great potential to help fill gaps in our knowledge of the distribution and abundance of British species. Analysis of calls collected by static detectors – whether specifically set to target small mammals or deployed as part of a bat survey – could in future offer a rich source of data and help to complement traditional methods, such as the use of Longworth traps or footprint tunnels.

To read about the key identification features of small-mammal calls, see the December issue of British Wildlife (more information can be found on the British Wildlife website) and to accompany this article, audio clips of the species discussed are available to download here. This work will contribute to the BTO Acoustic Pipeline, which allows the upload of sound recordings and automatically detects and identifies any calls of bats, bush-crickets and small mammals. For more information about the project, see the BTO Acoustic Pipeline webpage and read comments from the authors here.

Bat detectors for small mammal survey:
Passive bat detectors are designed to be left in the field for unattended monitoring and are the ideal choice for ecologists and researchers wishing to monitor local bat populations. For similar reasons, they are also a good choice for recording small mammals as they record all frequencies continuously and retain complex details of the call structure, allowing the sounds to be analysed later using bioacoustics software. Detectors such as the Song Meter Mini, Anabat Swift and Elekon Batlogger A+ all features excellent weatherproofing, long battery life and the ability to programme recording schedules.

https://www.nhbs.com/blog/acoustic-identification-small-mammals

Posted by ahospers 2 months ago (Flag)

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