Checklist of and guide to the crane flies in the subgenus Yamatotipula (Tipulidae: Tipula) with marked wings in the US and Canada (BETA)

NOTE: This is a Beta. Until the final is published, information put together may not be complete, consistent, and/or easy to follow for people not familiar with flies or these in particular. The terminology used here is at an advanced level. It is advised that you use sources from BugGuide etc. to define much of the jargon used here.

A large proportion of species of crane flies in the subgenus Yamatotipula (Tipulidae: Tipula) possess unmarked wings. Since many of these aren't really identified past subgenus online, it may be more effective to provide a guide and checklist of species with marked wings, where the markings of the wings make identification much easier as well as association to the subgenus. Since this lowers the number of species considerably, it may be easier to create a guide of these species throughout all of America north of Mexico. This list does not include Tipula ludoviciana, T. osceola, or T. sayi, which are not considered to have "marked" wings despite a darkened costal border on the wing. However, all those 3 are the only ones in the US and Canada that have this distinct costal border, generally overlap only in Florida, and thus can be separated from all others here: https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/aispinsects/22602-checklist-of-and-guide-to-crane-flies-in-the-subgenus-tipula-yamatotipula-that-are-possibly-in-florida.

Checklist of crane flies in the subgenus Yamatotipula (Tipulidae: Tipula) with marked wings in the US and Canada

aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b)
caloptera (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
calopteroides (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)
cognata (Doane, 1901; Alexander, 1967k)
comanche (Alexander, 1916b; Dietz, 1917)
concava (Alexander, 1943k)
conspicua (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)
continentalis (Alexander, 1941e)
eluta (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
floridensis (Alexander, 1926o)
fraterna (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)
fulvilineata (Dietz, 1917; Doane, 1901; Alexander, 1967k)
furca (Walker, 1848; Alexander, 1943k)
kennicotti (Alexander, 1915h, p. 480; Alexander, 1943k)
maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m)
manahatta (Alexander, 1919e; Alexander, 1943k)
meridiana (Doane, 1912; Alexander, 1967k)
noveboracensis (Alexander, 1919e; Alexander, 1943k)
nuntia (Alexander, 1946b)
sackeniana (Alexander, 1918; Alexander, 1943k)
strepens (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)
subeluta (Johnson, 1913; Alexander, 1943k)
tricolor (Fabricius, 1775; Alexander, 1943k)
vicina (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)
xanthostigma (Dietz, 1917)


T. aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b, p. 49)

  1. (USA: AR, TX)
  2. Allied to T. comanche, T. fulvilineata, T. noveboracensis, T. vicina
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  4. Wing cell R5 not darkened except for tip? "Tip" is ambiguous but not defined
  5. Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow, but the 3 basal ones light brown (see allied species)
  6. Wing pattern with a potentially strongly contrasting hyaline color
  7. Cell Br color unclear, discal cell color unknown, stigma brown
  8. Thorax with broad dark brown median stripe; the lateral stripes indistinct
  9. Stigma brown and general appearance of wing darker
  10. Female has wings reduced and reaching to the end of the third abdominal segment
  11. Head with indistinct brown, longitudinal median line running between the eyes dorsally, less distinct than in T. comanche
  12. Abdomen brownish gray with the tergites laterally clear gray, ninth tergite tipped broadly with bright yellowish, frontal prolongation of head brownish gray, tibiae yellowish brown and a little darker at the tip
  13. Possible observation of male: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/22180993, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/10120418
  14. Possible observation of female: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20378967

T. caloptera (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada: ON, QC, NL south to USA: KS, MO, AR, and FL
  • Allied to T. calopteroides, T. conspicua, T. strepens, commonly confused with T. noveboracensis
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened; R5 with basal portion darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae bicolored with the basal portion of flagellar segments brown and the remaining yellow
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell with outer half or more darkened (see allied species)
  • Abdomen with brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
  • Male antennae short, not passing wing bases if held back
  • Large, coloration of wing dark fuscous-brown

T. calopteroides (Alexander, 1919e, p. 168; Alexander, 1943k)

  • USA: PA, TN, NC and SC
  • Allied to T. caloptera, T. conspicua, T. strepens, possibly easily confused with T. noveboracensis
  • Flagellum of the antennae not uniformly yellow
  • Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened; R5 with basal portion darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae distinctly bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell with outer half or more darkened (see allied species)
  • Abdomen with brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
  • Male antennae long, well passing wing bases if held back
  • Wing pattern strongly contrasting and vein A2 bordered with brown except for the base; brown at the base of cell Bm is practically lacking except for the brown seam on CuA; more closely approaches strepens in that there is more white or light color than in T. caloptera

T. cognata (Doane, 1901, p. 123; Alexander, 1967k) syn. alexandriana

  • Canada: BC south to USA: CA, UT
  • Allied to T. tricolor & co in the east
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; uniformly brown with basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow
  • Wing cell R5 darkened (see allied species)
  • Wing really without much of a white crossband
  • Side of the thorax unmarked; wing pattern not contrasting; perhaps much like kennicotti of the east, but wing is almost uniformly dusky colored except for cell Bm and the area before the brown stigma, no dark costal stripe; wing darkened apically as well; thorax without a median stripe
  • Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up
  • https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/34039#page/149/mode/1up

T. comanche (Alexander, 1916b, p. 50; Dietz, 1917)

  • USA: TX
  • Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. fulvilineata, T. noveboracensis, T. vicina
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • Wing cell R5 with at least outer portion not darkened; it is almost completely hyaline
  • Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow, but the more basal ones brownish gray to yellowish brown; elongated, with the flagellomeres slightly incised beneath (see allied species)
  • Wing pattern very pale and diffused
  • Cell Br and Bm colors unknown, stigma yellowish brown
  • Thorax with broad dark brown median stripe; the lateral stripes shortened
  • Antennal lengths unknown, first antennal segment rather long
  • Stigma yellowish brown, general appearance of wing lighter
  • Female with normal wings
  • Head with distinct narrow, brown, longitudinal median line running between the eyes dorsally, more distinct than in T. aspidoptera
  • Abdomen brownish gray with the tergites laterally broadly dull yellow, frontal prolongation of head rather long and bright gray, tibiae brown

T. concava (Alexander, 1926o, p. 294; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada; USA: MI-ME, south to KS, MO, AR and TN
  • Allied to T. eluta, T. furca.
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae bicolored with bases of flagellar segments black and the remainder yellow
  • Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs (see allied species); cells M3 and CuA1 with pale coloration.
  • Hyaline and dark patterns not very contrasting, dark costal pattern does not intrude into Br before Rs
  • Discal cell darkened on at least apical half, abdomen with stripes
  • Pleura light gray and vaguely striped longitudinally with a darker gray
  • https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12051017

T. conspicua (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)

  • USA: NC
  • Allied to T. caloptera, T. calopteroides, T. strepens
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae bicolored with bases of flagellar segments black and the remainder yellow
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell completely pale (see allied species)
  • Abdomen without longitudinal stripes on each side, ochre-yellow
  • Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up

T. continentalis (Alexander, 1941e, p. 85)

  • USA: AK, south to CA, CO
  • Highly tentative placement, wings likely not as marked so as to be distinct
  • Wings not heavily striped with brown

T. eluta (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada: ON-NB south to USA: IA, IL, AR, LA, and FL
  • Allied to T. concava, T. furca. See this figure of the wings of furca and eluta (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae bicolored
  • Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs (see allied species)
  • Hyaline and dark patterns not very contrasting, dark costal pattern does not intrude into Br before Rs to form a bisinuate posterior edge
  • Discal cell entirely hyaline, abdomen without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side

T. floridensis (Alexander, 1926o, p. 292)

  1. USA: FL
  2. Allied to T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow, this yellow growing darker in the distal segments
  4. Wing cell R5 darkened (not paled in comparison to surrounding cells) along with the entire wing apex; stigma yellow in the basal portion and dark brown in the distal portion (see allied species)
  5. Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to far into the base of cell M3; center of cell M4 extensively pale; outer end of cell Bm may be darkened
  6. T. fraterna types were lost and I cannot translate Loew's language, may be indistinguishable from fraterna without examination of genitalia
  7. Antennae of male moderately long, extending back to base of abdomen
  8. Abdominal tergites pale yellowish brown with a broad dark brown sublateral stripe
  9. Femora brownish yellow, with the tips narrowly and vaguely darkened
  10. Described from Gainesville, Florida

T. fraterna (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k; Hynes, 1961)

  1. USA: NH, south to FL
  2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments nearly black and the remainder yellow, this yellow growing darker in the distal segments
  4. Wing cell R5 darkened, may be pale in outer edge, but in such case surrounded by considerable darkness and not continuous in color with the pale area at the central/discal area of the wing; stigma yellow in the basal portion and dark brown in the distal portion (see allied species)
  5. Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to near posterior wing margin into cells M3 and CuA1
  6. fraterna types were lost, I cannot translate Loew's language, and Alexander (1943k) was not intended to give heavy descriptions. This species may be indistinguishable from floridensis without examination of genitalia and exclusive cases (pale color in R5).
  7. Antennae relatively long
  8. Femora with brown tips
  9. Cell bm of wing mostly pale, may be darkened in outer edge
  10. Description of what Hynes (1961) found that most closely resembles the species: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50586310#page/235/mode/1up
  11. Surprisingly, a photo exists on BugGuide of an individual with the partially paled R5: https://bugguide.net/node/view/1251749/bgimage

T. fulvilineata (Dietz, 1917; Doane, 1901; Alexander, 1967k)

  • USA: OR, CA & Channel Island
  • Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. comanche, T. noveboracensis, T. vicina
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • Either R5 darkened or R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened...
  • Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments yellow (diagnostic feature, but may be very difficult to notice in photos; see allied species)
  • Wing pattern with strongly contrasting brown and hyaline color
  • Cell Br dark brown except tip, cell Bm and stigma colors unsure
  • Antennae of female reaching a little more than half way to the base of the wings
  • Don't understand the terminology of original description, maybe resembles the eastern T. noveboracensis
  • Possible iNaturalist observation: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/5704718
    -https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/34039#page/150/mode/1up

T. furca (Walker, 1848; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada: ON, QC USA: WI, ME south to KS, TX, FL
  • Allied to T. concava, T. eluta. See this figure of the wings of furca and eluta (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
  • Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs (see allied species for following characters)
  • Hyaline and dark patterns contrasting, dark costal pattern seems to intrude into cell Br on Rs to form a bisnuate posterior edge (forming a semi eye spot)
  • Discal cell completely hyaline or clear
  • Antennae short
  • Abdomen may have brown, longitudinal stripes on each side

T. kennicotti (Alexander, 1915h, p. 480; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada: NWT, AB, QC, USA: ND, south to UT, CO, KS, ID and OH
  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
  • Note that the wings of this species are so poorly marked that it may not even look like a marked wing species
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; flagellar segments 3-5 with bases paler than the remainder and the rest of the flagellar segments are relatively uniformly brown
  • Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma pale-brown (see allied species for following characters)
  • Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to discal cell
  • Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura
  • Wings very poorly marked, brown veins contrasting with background color
  • Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen

T. maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m, p. 182)

  1. USA: TN
  2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
  4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma color unknown (see allied species for following characters)
  5. Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to far into the base of cell M3; center of cell M4 extensively pale; outer end of cell Bm may be darkened
  6. Side of the thorax with conspicuous brown marks in the cephalic (anterior?) portion of the anepisternum, bottom half of the katepisternum, and on the propleuron, distinguishes from T. floridensis and T. fraterna.
  7. Written as distinct from T. subeluta, perhaps the thoracic pleural marks differ, otherwise not too sure how
  8. Abdominal tergites dark

T. manahatta (Alexander, 1919e, p. 169; Alexander, 1943k)

  1. USA: NY, south to TN and FL
  2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
  3. Flagellum of antennae uniformly yellow with basal antennal segments dark (diagnostic among marked-wing species)
  4. Similar to T. sackeniana, and thus T. tricolor, with most of the wing darkened and with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma across the discal cell to mid-length of cell CuA1.

T. meridiana (Doane, 1912, p. 58; Alexander, 1967k)

T. noveboracensis (Alexander, 1919e, p. 167; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada: ON-NF USA: ME, south to MI and MD
  • Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. comanche, T. fulvilineata, T. vicina
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments of antennae not yellow, but the more basal ones yellowish brown (see allied species for following characters)
  • Wing pattern with strongly contrasting brown and hyaline color
  • Cell Br mostly dark brown, cell Bm abruptly clear, stigma yellow
  • Thorax most likely with narrow dark brown median stripe
  • Antennae short, with male's reaching back to a distance before wing root
  • Observation of male(?): https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12555448

T. nuntia (Alexander, 1946b, p. 140)

  • USA: WA
  • Possibly allied to T. tricolor & co in the east
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments yellow and the remainder brownish black
  • R5 darkened? (see allied species for following characters)
  • Wing with white crossband extending from base of stigmal marking only to the base of discal cell
  • Side of the thorax unmarked
  • Wings with more contrasting pattern
  • Abdomen with stripes?
  • Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen

T. sackeniana (Alexander, 1918a, p. 62; Alexander, 1943k)

  1. USA: NY to CT, south to TN and GA
  2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. subeluta, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
  4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma color unknown (see allied species for following characters)
  5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
  6. Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura; outer end of cell Bm of wing most likely hyaline
  7. Wings with more contrasting pattern, brightened in the longitudinal center of wing, veins yellow
  8. Abdomen without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
  9. Coloration of the thorax and abdomen reddish yellow; sides of the basal segments of abdomen more yellowish; the terminal segments of abdomen scarcely darkened
  10. Femora dark brown with the basal portion lighter
  11. Male hypopygium without cluster of long setae on each side of the 9th tergite
  12. iNaturalist observation: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8185042

T. strepens (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada: ON-QC-NF, south to USA: KS, NJ and perhaps VA
  • Allied to T. caloptera, T. calopteroides, T. conspicua
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened; R5 with basal portion darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae bicolored weakly
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs; discal cell with outer half or more darkened (see allied species for following characters)
  • Abdomen with brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
  • Male antennae long, well passing wing bases if held back
  • Wing pattern not contrasting and vein A2 not bordered with brown or weakly
  • Smaller, coloration of wing grayish fuscous

T. subeluta (Johnson, 1913; Alexander, 1943k)

  1. USA: MA, south to LA and FL
  2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. tricolor, T. xanthostigma
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
  4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma color unknown (see allied species for following characters)
  5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
  6. Side of the thorax with transverse, oblique brown mark running from the shoulders to the base of the second pair of legs, covering the cephalic (?) portions of the anepisternum and katepisternum; outer end of cell Bm of wing darkened
  7. Abdominal tergites dark yellow

T. tricolor (Fabricius, 1775; Alexander, 1919d, Alexander, 1943k)

  1. Canada: ON, QC USA: MN, ME, south to CO, AR, LA, and FL
  2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. xanthostigma
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; strongly bicolored with bases of flagellar segments brown and the remainder yellow
  4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma dark fuscous (see allied species for following characters)
  5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
  6. Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura; outer end of cell Bm of wing hyaline
  7. Wings with more contrasting pattern, brightened in the longitudinal center of wing, veins yellow
  8. Abdomen with or without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
  9. Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen; the terminal segments of the abdomen extensively darkened
  10. Male hypopygium with a cluster of long setae on each side of the 9th tergite

T. vicina (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Canada: ON-QC-NF USA:MN, south to KS and PA
  • Allied to T. aspidoptera, T. comanche, T. fulvilineata, T. noveboracensis, possibly easily confused with T. furca and T. concava
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • Wing cell R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Flagellum of antennae uniformly brown, basal 6 segments not yellow, but basal segments brownish yellow (see allied species for following characters)
  • Wing pattern pale and diffused
  • Cell Br and Bm mostly pale, stigma brown
  • Thorax with narrow dark brown median stripe
  • Abdomen with a longitudinal stripe on each side
  • Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up
  • BOLD systems: http://v3.boldsystems.org/index.php/Taxbrowser_Taxonpage?taxid=392173

T. xanthostigma (Dietz, 1917)

  1. USA: CO
  2. Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. kennicotti, T. maculipleura, T. manahatta, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  3. Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; bicolored with bases of flagellar segments black and the remainder yellow
  4. Wing cell R5 darkened, not paled in comparison to surrounding cells; stigma yellow (see allied species for following characters)
  5. Wing with a conspicuous whitish crossband extending transversely from before the stigma to the discal cell
  6. Side of the thorax unmarked, distinguishes from T. subeluta and T. maculipleura
  7. Wings with more contrasting pattern, brightened in the longitudinal center of wing, veins yellow
  8. Abdomen with or without brown, longitudinal stripes on each side
  9. Thorax yellowish-gray to pale brown, abdomen sordid yellow
  10. Drawing of the wing: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/188/mode/1up
  11. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/194/mode/1up
  12. Very likely photo of mating pair: https://bugguide.net/node/view/1312934/bgimage (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/22279925)

References

Alexander, 1915h. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera. Part. 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67: 458-514. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1915h.pdf)

Alexander, 1916b. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Canadian Entomologist 48: 42-53. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1916b.pdf)

Alexander, 1918a. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Part IV. Canadian Entomologist 50: 60-71. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1918a.pdf)

Alexander, 1919d. The crane-flies of New York. Part I. Distribution and taxonomy of the adult flies. Memoirs, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station 25: 767-993.
(https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1919d.pdf)

Alexander, 1926o. Undescribed species of crane-flies from the eastern United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). Part III. Entomological News 37: 291-297. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1926o.pdf)

Alexander, 1927m. Undescribed species of crane-flies from the eastern United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). Part IV. Entomological News 38: 181-184. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1927m.pdf)

Alexander, 1941e. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Part XV. Canadian Entomologist 73: 85-90. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1941e.pdf)

Alexander, 1945k. Undescribed species of crane-flies from the western United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). Part IV. Entomological News 56: 155-161. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1945k.pdf)

Alexander, 1946b. New Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera). Part XXIV. Canadian Entomologist 77: 140-144. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/documents/Alexander,_1946b.pdf)

Alexander, 1967k. The crane flies of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 8: 1-263. (https://essig.berkeley.edu/documents/cis/cis08.pdf)

Dietz, 1917. Key to the North American species of the tricolor group of the dipterous genus Tipula Linnaeus, with descriptions of four new species. Entomological News 28: 145-151. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/20201#page/189/mode/1up)

Doane, 1901. Descriptions of new Tipulidae. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 9: 97-127. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/34039#page/123/mode/1up)

Doane, 1912. New western Tipula. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 5: 41-61. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/43634#page/53/mode/1up)

Fabricius, 1775

Hynes, 1961. The designation and description of the neotype of Tipula fraterna Loew (Tipulidae-Diptera). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 55: 43-45. (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50586310#page/235/mode/1up)

Johnson, 1913. Insects of Florida. I. Diptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 32: 37-90. (http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/1407//v2/dspace/ingest/pdfSource/bul/B032a03.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y)

Loew, 1863

Oosterbroek, P. Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World. (https://ccw.naturalis.nl/index.php)

Posted by aispinsects aispinsects, April 14, 2019 05:00

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