Flaxington

Joined: Dec 20, 2018 Last Active: Nov 14, 2019

The fauna taxonomy used in the below list derives from a combination of literature. In general, the list follows Crother (2017), Frost and The American Museum of Natural History (2007), Jennings and Fuller (2004a), Stebbins (2003), and Grismer (2002). However, an alternative English name was used when disagreeing with the published nomenclature. For example, Pseudacris sierra, a frog existing well beyond the Sierra Nevada region was labeled "Central Pacific Chorus Frog" to express the broader existence among its kin. To maintain consistency all taxa with specific epithet sierrae are granted the coordinating English name Sierra Nevada. Additionally, English names containing Coastal are codified as Coast to present a carefully disciplined arrangement.

Currently, there are 77 amphibians and 105 reptiles inhabiting California, with 46 of the existing species being endemic to the state. These numbers will certainly increase as scientists continue to use chromosomal and molecular methods to uncover cryptic species and more pet imports become feral. Humans have introduced many exotic species through misconduct. Most do not establish viable, reproductive populations. But a few, such as the Rio Grande Leopard Frog (Rana berlandieri), American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis), Western Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium), Mediterranean House Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus), Southern Watersnake (Nerodia fasciata), Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera), and Pond Slider (Trachemys scripta) have established thriving populations and consequently are added to the Catalog List. Introduced species such as these are represented with a "+" symbol.

In recent years, extreme pressures have been placed on many California species, resulting in the disappearance and possible extirpation of the Arizona Toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus), Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa), Lowland Leopard Frog (Rana yavapaiensis), and Desert Mud Turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense). However, due to historic significance these species remain on the roster and are marked with a "†"symbol. The Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) is routinely assumed as California native. Isla Cedros exists 482 km (300 mi) south of California, off the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, and is the turtle’s northern most reach. No evidence exists it ever inhabited California waters, even during warm El Niño periods. Thus, E. imbricata is omitted from the Catalog List.

AMPHIBIANS
FROGS AND TOADS
ANAXYRUS (North American Toads)
Anaxyrus boreas, Western Toad
Anaxyrus californicus, Arroyo Toad
Anaxyrus canorus, Yosemite Toad
Anaxyrus cognatus, Great Plains Toad
Anaxyrus exsul, Black Toad
Anaxyrus microscaphus, Arizona Toad (†)
Anaxyrus punctatus, Red-spotted Toad
Anaxyrus woodhousii, Woodhouse's Toad

ASCAPHUS (Tailed Frogs)
Ascaphus truei, Coast Tailed Frog

INCILIUS (Central American Toads)
Incilius alvarius, Sonoran Desert Toad (†)

PSEUDACRIS (Chorus Frogs)
Pseudacris cadaverina, California Chorus Frog
Pseudacris hypochondriaca, Southern Pacific Chorus Frog
Pseudacris regilla, Northern Pacific Chorus Frog
Pseudacris sierra, Central Pacific Chorus Frog

RANA (True Frogs)
Rana aurora, Northern Red-legged Frog
Rana berlandieri, Rio Grande Leopard Frog (+)
Rana boylii, Foothill Yellow-legged Frog
Rana cascadae, Cascades Frog
Rana catesbeiana, American Bullfrog (+)
Rana draytonii, California Red-legged Frog
Rana luteiventris, Columbia Spotted Frog (†)
Rana muscosa, Southern Mountain Yellow-legged Frog
Rana pipiens, Northern Leopard Frog
Rana pretiosa, Oregon Spotted Frog (†)
Rana sierrae, Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog
Rana yavapaiensis, Lowland Leopard Frog (†)

SCAPHIOPUS (North American Spadefoots)
Scaphiopus couchii, Couch's Spadefoot

SPEA (Western Spadefoots)
Spea hammondii, Western Spadefoot
Spea intermontana, Great Basin Spadefoot

XENOPUS (Clawed Frogs)
Xenopus laevis, African Clawed Frog (+)

SALAMANDERS AND NEWTS
AMBYSTOMA (Mole Salamanders)
Ambystoma californiense, California Tiger Salamander
Ambystoma gracile, Northwestern Salamander
Ambystoma macrodactylum, Long-toed Salamander
A. m. croceum, Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander
A. m. sigillatum, Southern Long-toed Salamander
Ambystoma mavortium, Western Tiger Salamander (+)

ANEIDES (Climbing Salamanders)
Aneides ferreus, Clouded Salamander
Aneides flavipunctatus, Speckled Black Salamander
Aneides iecanus, Shasta Black Salamander
Aneides lugubris, Arboreal Salamander
Aneides niger, Santa Cruz Black Salamander
Aneides vagrans, Wandering Salamander

BATRACHOSEPS (Slender Salamanders)
Batrachoseps altasierrae, Greenhorn Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps attenuatus, California Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps bramei, Fairview Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps campi, Inyo Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps diabolicus, Hell Hollow Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps gabrieli, San Gabriel Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps gavilanensis, Gabilan Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps gregarius, Gregarious Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps incognitus, San Simeon Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps kawia, Sequoia Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps luciae, Santa Lucia Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps major, Southern California Slender Salamander
B. m. aridus, Desert Slender Salamander
B. m. major, Garden Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps minor, Lesser Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps nigriventris, Black-bellied Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps pacificus, Channel Islands Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps regius, Kings River Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps relictus, Relictual Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps robustus, Kern Plateau Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps simatus, Kern Canyon Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps stebbinsi, Tehachapi Slender Salamander

DICAMPTODON (Giant Salamanders)
Dicamptodon ensatus, California Giant Salamander
Dicamptodon tenebrosus, Coast Giant Salamander

ENSATINA (Ensatinas)
Ensatina eschscholtzii, Ensatina
E. e. croceater, Yellow-blotched Ensatina
E. e. eschscholtzii, Monterey Ensatina
E. e. klauberi, Large-blotched Ensatina
E. e. oregonensis, Oregon Ensatina
E. e. picta, Painted Ensatina
E. e. platensis, Sierra Nevada Ensatina
E. e. xanthoptica, Yellow-eyed Ensatina

HYDROMANTES (Web-toed Salamanders)
Hydromantes brunus, Limestone Salamander
Hydromantes platycephalus, Mount Lyell Salamander
Hydromantes samweli, Samwel Cave Salamander
Hydromantes shastae, Shasta Cave Salamander
Hydromantes wintu, Wintu Cave Salamander

PLETHODON (Woodland Salamanders)
Plethodon asupak, Scott Bar Salamander
Plethodon dunni, Dunn's Salamander
Plethodon elongatus, Del Norte Salamander
Plethodon stormi, Siskiyou Mountains Salamander

RHYACOTRITON (Torrent Salamanders)
Rhyacotriton variegatus, Southern Torrent Salamander

TARICHA (Pacific Newts)
Taricha granulosa, Rough-skinned Newt
Taricha rivularis, Red-bellied Newt
Taricha sierrae, Sierra Nevada Newt
Taricha torosa, California Newt

REPTILES
LIZARDS
ANNIELLA (California Legless Lizards)
Anniella alexanderae, Temblor Legless Lizard
Anniella campi, Southern Sierra Legless Lizard
Anniella grinnelli, Bakersfield Legless Lizard
Anniella pulchra, Northern California Legless Lizard
Anniella stebbinsi, Southern California Legless Lizard

ASPIDOSCELIS (Whiptails)
Aspidoscelis hyperythra, Orange-throated Whiptail
A. h. beldingi, Belding's Orange-throated Whiptail
Aspidoscelis tigris, Tiger Whiptail
A. t. munda, California Tiger Whiptail
A. t. stejnegeri, Coast Tiger Whiptail
A. t. tigris, Great Basin Tiger Whiptail

CALLISAURUS (Zebra-tailed Lizards)
Callisaurus draconoides, Zebra-tailed Lizard
C. d. rhodostictus, Western Zebra-tailed Lizard

COLEONYX (Banded Geckos)
Coleonyx switaki, Switak's Banded Gecko
Coleonyx variegatus, Western Banded Gecko
C. v. abbotti, San Diego Banded Gecko
C. v. variegatus, Desert Banded Gecko

CROTAPHYTUS (Collared Lizards)
Crotaphytus bicinctores, Great Basin Collared Lizard
Crotaphytus vestigium, Baja California Collared Lizard

DIPSOSAURUS (Desert Iguanas)
Dipsosaurus dorsalis, Desert Iguana
D. d. dorsalis, Northern Desert Iguana

ELGARIA (Western Alligator Lizards)
Elgaria coerulea, Northern Alligator Lizard
E. c. coerulea, San Francisco Alligator Lizard
E. c. palmeri, Sierra Alligator Lizard
E. c. principis, Northwestern Alligator Lizard
E. c. shastensis, Shasta Alligator Lizard
Elgaria multicarinata, Southern Alligator Lizard
E. m. multicarinata, California Alligator Lizard
E. m. webbii, San Diego Alligator Lizard
Elgaria panamintina, Panamint Alligator Lizard

GAMBELIA (Leopard Lizards)
Gambelia copeii, Cope's Leopard Lizard
Gambelia sila, Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard
Gambelia wislizenii, Long-nosed Leopard Lizard

HELODERMA (Gila Monsters)
Heloderma suspectum, Gila Monster
H. s. cinctum, Banded Gila Monster

HEMIDACTYLUS (House Geckos)
Hemidactylus turcicus, Mediterranean House Gecko (+)

PETROSAURUS (Banded Rock Lizards)
Petrosaurus mearnsi, Banded Rock Lizard

PHRYNOSOMA (Horned Lizards)
Phrynosoma blainvillii, Blainville's Horned Lizard
Phrynosoma douglasii, Pygmy Short-horned Lizard
Phrynosoma mcallii, Flat-tailed Horned Lizard
Phrynosoma platyrhinos, Desert Horned Lizard

PHYLLODACTYLUS (Leaf-toed Geckos)
Phyllodactylus nocticolus, Peninsular Leaf-toed Gecko

PLESTIODON (Toothy Skinks)
Plestiodon gilberti, Gilbert's Skink
P. g. cancellosus, Variegated Skink
P. g. gilberti, Greater Brown Skink
P. g. placerensis, Northern Brown Skink
P. g. rubricaudatus, Western Red-tailed Skink
Plestiodon skiltonianus, Western Skink
P. s. interparietalis, Coronado Skink
P. s. skiltonianus, Skilton's Skink
P. s. utahensis, Great Basin Skink

SAUROMALUS (Chuckwallas)
Sauromalus ater, Common Chuckwalla

SCELOPORUS (Spiny Lizards)
Sceloporus graciosus, Sagebrush Lizard
S. g. gracilis, Western Sagebrush Lizard
S. g. graciosus, Northern Sagebrush Lizard
S. g. vandenburgianus, Southern Sagebrush Lizard
Sceloporus magister, Desert Spiny Lizard
Sceloporus occidentalis, Western Fence Lizard
S. o. becki, Island Fence Lizard
S. o. biseriatus, San Joaquin Fence Lizard
S. o. bocourtii, Coast Range Fence Lizard
S. o. longipes, Great Basin Fence Lizard
S. o. occidentalis, Northwestern Fence Lizard
S. o. taylori, Sierra Fence Lizard
Sceloporus orcutti, Granite Spiny Lizard
Sceloporus uniformis, Yellow-backed Spiny Lizard

UMA (Fringe-toed Lizards)
Uma inornata, Coachella Valley Fringe-toed Lizard
Uma notata, Colorado Desert Fringe-toed Lizard
Uma scoparia, Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard

UROSAURUS (Brush and Tree Lizards)
Urosaurus graciosus, Long-tailed Brush Lizard
U. g. graciosus, Western Long-tailed Brush Lizard
Urosaurus microscutatus, Small-scaled Brush Lizard
Urosaurus ornatus, Ornate Tree Lizard
U. o. symmetricus, Colorado River Tree Lizard

UTA (Side-blotched Lizards)
Uta stansburiana, Common Side-blotched Lizard
U. s. elegans, Western Side-blotched Lizard
U. s. nevadensis, Nevada Side-blotched Lizard

XANTUSIA (Night Lizards)
Xantusia gracilis, Sandstone Night Lizard
Xantusia henshawi, Granite Night Lizard
Xantusia riversiana, Island Night Lizard
X. r. reticulata, Island Night Lizard
X. r. riversiana, San Nicolas Island Night Lizard
Xantusia sierrae, Sierra Nevada Night Lizard
Xantusia vigilis, Desert Night Lizard
Xantusia wigginsi, Wiggins' Night Lizard

SNAKES
ARIZONA (Glossy Snakes)
Arizona elegans, Glossy Snake
A. e. candida, Mojave Glossy Snake
A. e. eburnata, Desert Glossy Snake
A. e. occidentalis, California Glossy Snake

BOGERTOPHIS (Desert Rat Snakes)
Bogertophis rosaliae, Baja California Rat Snake

CHARINA (Rubber Boas)
Charina bottae, Northern Rubber Boa
Charina umbratica, Southern Rubber Boa

CHIONACTIS (Shovel-nosed Snakes)
Chionactis annulata, Resplendent Shovel-nosed Snake
C. a. annulata, Colorado Desert Shovel-nosed Snake
Chionactis occipitalis, Mojave Shovel-nosed Snake

COLUBER (Racers)
Coluber constrictor, North American Racer
C. c. mormon, Western Yellow-bellied Racer

CONTIA (Sharp-tailed Snakes)
Contia longicauda, Forest Sharp-tailed Snake
Contia tenuis, Common Sharp-tailed Snake

CROTALUS (Rattlesnakes)
Crotalus atrox, Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake
Crotalus cerastes, Sidewinder
C. c. cerastes, Mojave Desert Sidewinder
C. c. laterorepens, Colorado Desert Sidewinder
Crotalus pyrrhus, Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake
Crotalus oreganus, Western Rattlesnake
C. o. helleri, Southern Pacific Rattlesnake
C. o. lutosus, Great Basin Rattlesnake
C. o. oreganus, Northern Pacific Rattlesnake
Crotalus ruber, Red Diamond Rattlesnake
Crotalus scutulatus, Mojave Rattlesnake
C. s. scutulatus, Mojave Rattlesnake
Crotalus stephensi, Panamint Rattlesnake

DIADOPHIS (Ring-necked Snakes)
Diadophis punctatus, Ring-necked Snake
D. p. amabilis, Pacific Ring-necked Snake
D. p. modestus, San Bernardino Ring-necked Snake
D. p. occidentalis, Northwestern Ring-necked Snake
D. p. pulchellus, Sierra Ring-necked Snake
D. p. regalis, Regal Ring-necked Snake
D. p. similis, San Diego Ring-necked Snake
D. p. vandenburghii, Monterey Ring-necked Snake

HYDROPHIS (Sea Snakes)
Hydrophis platurus, Pelagic Sea Snake
H. p. platurus, Yellow-bellied Sea Snake

HYPSIGLENA (North American Night Snakes)
Hypsiglena chlorophaea, Desert Night Snake
H. c. deserticola, Northern Desert Night Snake
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha, Coast Night Snake
H. o. klauberi, San Diego Night Snake
H. o. nuchalata, California Night Snake

LAMPROPELTIS (Kingsnakes)
Lampropeltis californiae, California Kingsnake
Lampropeltis multifasciata, Coast Mountain Kingsnake
Lampropeltis zonata, California Mountain Kingsnake

LICHANURA (Rosy Boas)
Lichanura trivirgata, Rosy Boa
L. t. gracia, Desert Rosy Boa
L. t. roseofusca, Coast Rosy Boa

MASTICOPHIS (Coachwhips and Whipsnakes)
Masticophis flagellum, Common Coachwhip
M. f. piceus, Red Coachwhip
M. f. ruddocki, San Joaquin Coachwhip
Masticophis fuliginosus, Baja California Coachwhip
Masticophis lateralis, California Striped Whipsnake
M. l. euryxanthus, Alameda Striped Whipsnake
M. l. lateralis, Chaparral Striped Whipsnake
Masticophis taeniatus, Striped Whipsnake
M. t. taeniatus, Desert Striped Whipsnake

NERODIA (North American Watersnakes)
Nerodia fasciata, Southern Watersnake (+)
N. f. pictiventris, Florida Watersnake

PHYLLORHYNCHUS (Leaf-nosed Snakes)
Phyllorhynchus decurtatus, Spotted Leaf-nosed Snake

PITUOPHIS (Gopher Snakes)
Pituophis catenifer, Gopher Snake
P. c. affinis, Sonoran Gopher Snake
P. c. annectens, San Diego Gopher Snake
P. c. catenifer, Pacific Gopher Snake
P. c. deserticola, Great Basin Gopher Snake
P. c. pumilus, Channel Islands Gopher Snake

RENA (Thread Snakes)
Rena humilis, Western Thread Snake
R. h. cahuilae, Desert Thread Snake
R. h. humilis, Southwestern Thread Snake

RHINOCHEILUS (Long-nosed Snakes)
Rhinocheilus lecontei, Long-nosed Snake

SALVADORA (Patch-nosed Snakes)
Salvadora hexalepis, Western Patch-nosed Snake
S. h. hexalepis, Desert Patch-nosed Snake
S. h. mojavensis, Mojave Patch-nosed Snake
S. h. virgultea, Coast Patch-nosed Snake

SONORA (North American Ground Snakes)
Sonora semiannulata, Western Ground Snake
S. s. semiannulata, Variable Ground Snake

TANTILLA (Black-headed Snakes)
Tantilla hobartsmithi, Smith's Black-headed Snake
Tantilla planiceps, Western Black-headed Snake

THAMNOPHIS (North American Garter Snakes)
Thamnophis atratus, Aquatic Garter Snake
T. a. atratus, Santa Cruz Aquatic Garter Snake
T. a. hydrophilus, Oregon Aquatic Garter Snake
T. a. zaxanthus, Diablo Range Aquatic Garter Snake
Thamnophis couchii, Sierra Garter Snake
Thamnophis elegans, Terrestrial Garter Snake
T. e. elegans, Mountain Garter Snake
T. e. terrestris, Coast Garter Snake
T. e. vagrans, Wandering Garter Snake
Thamnophis gigas, Giant Garter Snake
Thamnophis hammondii, Two-striped Garter Snake
Thamnophis marcianus, Checkered Garter Snake
T. m. marcianus, Marcy's Checkered Garter Snake
Thamnophis ordinoides, Northwestern Garter Snake
Thamnophis sirtalis, Common Garter Snake
T. s. fitchi, Valley Garter Snake
T. s. infernalis, California Red-sided Garter Snake
T. s. tetrataenia, San Francisco Garter Snake

TRIMORPHODON (Lyre Snakes)
Trimorphodon lambda, Sonoran Lyre Snake
Trimorphodon lyrophanes, California Lyre Snake

TURTLES AND TORTOISES
ACTINEMYS (Western Pond Turtles)
Actinemys marmorata, Northwestern Pond Turtle
Actinemys pallida, Southwestern Pond Turtle

APALONE (North American Softshells)
Apalone spinifera, Spiny Softshell (+)
A. s. emoryi, Texas Spiny Softshell

CARETTA (Loggerhead Sea Turtles)
Caretta caretta, Loggerhead Sea Turtle

CHELONIA (Green Sea Turtles)
Chelonia mydas, Green Sea Turtle

DERMOCHELYS (Leatherback Sea Turtles)
Dermochelys coriacea, Leatherback Sea Turtle

GOPHERUS (Gopher Tortoises)
Gopherus agassizii, Mojave Desert Tortoise

KINOSTERNON (American Mud Turtles)
Kinosternon sonoriense, Desert Mud Turtle (†)
K. s. sonoriense, Sonoran Mud Turtle

LEPIDOCHELYS (Ridley Sea Turtles)
Lepidochelys olivacea, Olive Ridley Sea Turtle

TRACHEMYS (Sliders)
Trachemys scripta, Pond Slider (+)
T. s. elegans, Red-eared Slider

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