Taxonomy

Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Sapindales Anacardiaceae Mangifera Mangifera dongnaiensis

Taxonomic notes: Section empty

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Geographic Range

A small tree, endemic to southern Viet Nam (Bien Hoa, Giaray, Djiring) (WCMC 1998, Murkerjee 1985).

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Habitat

Restricted to the diminishing submontane wet evergreen forests (WCMC 1998).

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Population

Murkerjee (1985) stated that this species was of very restricted and local distribution, yet also identified it as insufficiently known. Decreasing population trend is inferred from decreasing quality in habitat as the quantity and quality of Vietnam's forest has decreased, despite forest area of Vietnam being documented as continuously increasing through forest plantation establishment and natural forest rehabilitation. The total area of rich and average quality forest is in continuous decline, with a rapid increase of poor and secondary forest cover to over 80% of total forest area in 2005 (FSIV 2009).

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Use Trade

The edible fruits of this species are harvested from wild sources, with poor practice and high intensity, often illegally from protected areas (CTBR 2010). 
This species is also a wild relative of cultivated mango (M. indica) (Kostermans and Bompard 1993) and so has potential us in crop improvement through future breeding programmes.

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Threats

In some areas within this species distribution poor harvesting practices and unsustainably high levels of collection are an ongoing threat (CTBR 2010). In addition to this, many Special Use Forests in Vietnam, including that of the Vinh Cuu Natural Reserve and Historical Relief, are also suffering from unsustainable levels of hunting, timber exploitation and land occupation due to a lack of conservation awareness and difficult living conditions. Most of these offences are carried out in spite of the Law of forest protection and development (2004), as knowledge held by both staff and management is inadequate and staffing levels are not sufficient for effective law enforcement (Van Mui 2007).

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Specific Threats

  • 5.3.5 Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
  • 5.2.1 Intentional use (species is the target)

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Conservation Actions

12 herbarium specimens are documented to be held in the French institution for natural history (MNHN), however no evidence for living collections conserved ex situ could be found, and so establishment of living collections for this species is recommended. 
From the literature this species seems to occur in the Cat Tien UNESCO MAB Biosphere Reserve, where in 2007 conservation projects to conserve the remaining forest habitat, enhance public awareness of the value of the National park, and to improve income generating opportunities for local populations were in place. 
M. dongnaiensis also occurs in Vinh Cuu National Reserve, which is linked with Cat Tien Biosphere Reserve, and also has a proposed conservation plan to address the issues of knowledge, training and management outlined in the 'Threats' section of this assessment. Unfortunately, progress of both of these projects is unknown. Research to ascertain the distribution of this species as well as population monitoring, and progress of ongoing conservation projects in protected areas is recommended.

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Specific Actions

  • 2.1 Site/area management
  • 1.1 Site/area protection
  • 1.2 Resource & habitat protection
  • 3.4.2 Genome resource bank
  • 4.2 Training
  • 4.3 Awareness & communications
  • 5.4.3 Sub-national level

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Red List Rationale

This species was previously assessed as endangered due to population reduction of at least 50% based on a decline in either area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and/or quality of habitat, and was also deemed to have a restricted AOO (WCMC 1998). Threats are still ongoing, even in protected areas of this species range, and no evidence of reintroductions or other activities to increase this species EOO or AOO has been found. Research to ascertain this species distribution and establish population monitoring within protected areas are recommended.

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Bibliography

  • Mukherjee, S.K. 1985. Systematic and ecogeographic studies of crop genepools: 1. Mangifera L. Rome, IBPGR Secretariat.

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