Zoomed out picture of the whole tree
Green rounded leaves with spiky edges
Variegated leaves. Compare http://naturewatch.org.nz/observations/4150728
Non-variegated leaves. Compare http://naturewatch.org.nz/observations/4150793
Locally common on valley sides under Quercus pubescens
Locally common in understorey of holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest
Ilex aquifolium (holly, common holly, English holly, European holly, or occasionally Christmas holly), is a species of holly native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia.I. aquifolium is the species familiar in Christmas decoration, and is regarded as the type species of the genus Ilex, which by association is also called "holly". It is a dioecious tree or shrub found, for example, in shady areas of forests of oak and in beech hedges....