Oak Toad

Anaxyrus quercicus

Summary 7

The Oak Toad (Anaxyrus quercicus) is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is endemic to the coastal regions of southeastern United States. It is regarded as the smallest species of toad in North America, with a length from 19 to 33 mm (0.75 to 1.3 in).

Physical description 8

Anaxyrus quercicus is the smallest toad species in North America, ranging from 1.9 to 3.3 cm. It is so small that adults found in the wild were commonly classified as “half-grown” or “juvenile” southern toads (Bufo lentiginosus). They have a short head with a pointed nose and the short, flat body is black or brown in color (color can change with temperature) with a long dorsal stripe that may be white, cream, yellow, or orange. There are 4 to 5 pairs of dark blotches found on the back. The back is finely tuberculate, with the fine bumps (red, orange or reddish-brown in color) giving it a rough texture. The underside is grayish white and has no blotches, but is covered in tubercles. Oak toads have elongated, teardrop-shaped paratoid glands that extend down either side. These glands house a poisonous fluid used deter predators. Males can be distinguished by their dark, dusky colored throats.

Range length: 19 to 33 mm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; poisonous

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger; sexes shaped differently

Sources and Credits

  1. (c) Matthew Niemiller, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0110/3597.jpeg
  2. (c) Mary Keim, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA), http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7079/7339514364_6770d8acc0_o.jpg
  3. Wikimedia Commons, no known copyright restrictions (public domain), https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/B_quercicus_USGS.jpg/460px-B_quercicus_USGS.jpg
  4. (c) Matthew Niemiller, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0110/3595.jpeg
  5. (c) Matthew Niemiller, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0110/3598.jpeg
  6. (c) Zack, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA), http://www.flickr.com/photos/87418376@N00/135679702
  7. (c) Wikipedia, some rights reserved (CC BY-SA), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaxyrus_quercicus
  8. (c) The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA), http://eol.org/data_objects/18632677

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