Голосование за самое симпатичное наблюдение МФК: финал

Уважаемые участники!

Открываем финальное голосование за самое симпатичное наблюдение МФК. В финал вышло три наблюдения! Для того, чтобы поставить наблюдению лайк, нужно пройти по ссылке и нажать на звёздочку рядом с надписью "добавили это наблюдение к фаворитам". По числу лайков мы определим победителя.

За каждое наблюдение можно поставить один лайк. Таким образом, вы можете поставить от 1 до 3 лайков. В финале вы сможете добавить лайки только тем наблюдениям, за которые вы не проголосовали ранее. Кроме того, вы можете отозвать проставленный ранее лайк у любого наблюдения.




https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100314593 , автор @ekaterina_dolgushina
Turdus pilaris (Дрозд-рябинник), Чебоксары, Чувашия


https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101279251 , автор @evgenia_vorontsova
Thladiantha dubia (Тладианта сомнительная), Ростов, Ярославская обл.


https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100323453 , автор @anna_parkhaeva
Larus canus (Сизая чайка), Ногинский р-н, Московская обл.



С удовольствием приглашаем проголосовать не только участников МФК, но и экспертов iNaturalist!

Dear identifiers, you are warmely welcome to vote for the most beautiful observation of our university course! Your faves are highly appreciated.

@julia_shner @convallaria1128 @natalia_gamova @mallaliev @phlomis_2019 @madmanserg @melodi_96 @igor_kuzmin @aleks-khimin @tayloria @vladimirbakutov @alex_iosipenko @hommenaturemons @anastasiiamerkulova @svg52 @alanhorstmann @natalya_vilyaeva @spins @andrewbazdyrev

Posted on November 28, 2021 06:52 by apseregin apseregin | 0 comments | Leave a comment

累計觀察紀錄與物種

統計日期 觀察紀錄 物種
2019.06. 9 9
2019.12. 12 12
2020.06. 134 120
2020.12. 208 181
2021.06. 211 183

Posted on November 28, 2021 06:37 by rickyp rickyp | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Inala Bruny Island Nov 27, 2021

Observations made by Tas Field Nats members on the Inala, Bruny Island Excursion November 27, 2021. The Excursion can now be viewed at Tas Field Nats 2021 Nov - Inala Project.

Posted on November 28, 2021 04:16 by peter27 peter27 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Tooms Lake - 6 Nov 2021

Tooms Lake
November 6, 2021
Observations made by Tas Field Nats members on the Tooms Lake Excursion November 6, 2021. The Excursion can now be viewed at Tooms Lake Nov 2021 Project.

Posted on November 28, 2021 04:06 by peter27 peter27 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

List of mimicry between pleasing fungus beetles (Erotylidae) and other kind of beetles/animals.

This journal post will be updated with beetle species showing signs of mimicry with (or by?) erotylid fungus beetle. I was going to make a project for that, but I think a journal post where I can list them and put a side-by-side image of each example will be better.

The type of mimicry erotylids show is the one called Müllerian, where both species share the same warning signs (aposematic) and they share genuine anti-predation mechanisms (in this case, not being palatable for birds, lizards, etc).

However there are very few studies regarding these defense mechanisms for all the species, so maybe some of them are just showing the warning signs, which would configure a Batesian type of mimicry.

Feel free to point out any mimicry that isn't on the list yet and to discuss them. The images shown here are taken from observations in iNat and sometimes from other sources. If you found your image here and you don't want it to be shown, just message me so I can replace it.




Oligocorynus zebraOligocorynus jansoniStenochiinae sp.
Distribution: Central America




Erotylus histrioPoecilopeplus coralliferMelanophryniscus admirabilis
Distribution: Southeast/South Brazil
Remarks: Not only these 2 beetles share the same pattern of alert for predators, but also this nearly extinct small frog. Its underside colors also follow this pattern and it is known that, when threatened, the frog flips belly up (its upper side colors are green-ish).
Related:
Some species from Erotylus histrio group (E. histrionicus, E. elegans, E. chevrolati, E. aegrotus, E. clarosignatus, E. permutatus).
Two species from Poecilopeplus genus (P. corallifer and P. batesi)
Some frogs from Melanophryniscus genus (notably this one from Rio Grande do Sul state, but other species seem to have a similar defense mechanim).




Iphiclus trifasciatusPoecilesthus geniculatus
Distribution: South/Southeast Brazil
Remarks: Many other species of Poecilesthus can be added to this comparison.




Erotylus sp.Eugenysa colossa
Distribution: Peru
Remarks: There's at least 3 or 4 described species of Erotylus that could be tortoise beetles mimics.

...More to be added soon...



Some literature:
01 - The distribution and evolution of exocrine compoundglands in Erotylinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Erotylidae 2013 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271932635
Posted on November 27, 2021 23:06 by fmiudo fmiudo | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Revamped project

I have finished converting this to an automatic collection project. Unfortunately that means we can no longer manually add observations to the project, but the upside is that we no longer have to manually add observations to the project!

The project now has about 24000 observations, compared with the 23000 observations under the previous incarnation. A few that were in the old project where no location was specified (or specified as private), or the location was outside NZ have been excluded. Let me know if you think we should include Islands outside our economic zone, or include the Ross Dependency (Antarctica).

If you want to add an observation to the project, just give it a preliminary ID of your best guess or if you have no clue about it, just add "sac fungi" and hopefully someone will correct it. If the fungus in the observation is not actually lichenised people can add the field "it's a lichen=no".

@mike68lusk, @pjd1, @marleyii, @marshy, @melissa_hutchison, @meurkc, @dblanchon, @allison89 @jon_terry

Posted on November 27, 2021 23:03 by tony_wills tony_wills | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Lançado em 2011 o Livro Últimos Refúgios: Parque Estadual de Itaúnas

“Últimos Refúgios: Parque Estadual de Itaúnas” é o segundo trabalho desenvolvido pelo Instituto Últimos Refúgios. O projeto teve início em meados de 2009 e foi totalmente finalizado em 2011, com a impressão do livro fotográfico e finalização do documentário que o compõe.

O livro é composto por fotografias que retratam as espécies de fauna e flora da região, divididas entre as seguintes seções: Dunas, Praia e Restinga, Alagados, Rio Itaúnas, Caminhos de Itaúnas e Últimos Refúgios em Itaúnas. Além das imagens, é possível conferir artigos escritos por profissionais do Instituto Estadual de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos (Iema), assim como textos de apresentação das áreas que dão nome às seções descritas anteriormente.

​Além das fotografias, o livro contém ainda o DVD do documentário “Últimos Refúgios: Itaúnas”, dirigido por Yuri Salvador. O documentário apresenta a situação socioambiental da pequena vila localizada nos arredores do parque, e conta com o depoimento de moradores, pesquisadores, biólogos e funcionários do parque e do Iema.

​O lançamento do livro e do documentário aconteceu em novembro de 2011, durante as comemorações dos 20 anos do Parque Estadual de Itaúnas.

Saiba mais: https://www.ultimosrefugios.org.br/parque-estadual-de-itanas

Posted on November 27, 2021 20:28 by leonardomercon leonardomercon | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Lançado em 2015 o Livro Últimos Refúgios: Reserva Biológica de Sooretama

O Livro Reserva Biológica de Sooretama - Série Áreas Protegidas - Volume II te leva para dentro do coração da Mata Atântica, um dos biomas mais diversos do mundo. Com belíssimas imagens dos animais, das plantas e incríveis cenários.  

O local selecionado para o trabalho foi a Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, considerada uma das mais importantes unidades de conservação do país, em virtude de sua grande área verde e riqueza de biodiversidade. É também o último refúgio de diversas espécies ameaçadas, como a anta, o tatu canastra, o gavião-real e as onças pintadas.

A Reserva Biológica é viva! É dever de todos preservar este tesouro.Este livro fotográfico, cultural/ambiental, é a segunda publicação da série Áreas Protegidas, realizada pelo Instituto Últimos Refúgios que, gradativamente, envolve-se mais com a conservação da biodiversidade brasileira. A série Áreas Protegidas mostra as riquezas ainda preservadas do Estado do Espírito Santo.

É um livro bilíngue (portugués\inglês). Capa Dura, 208 páginas 29x23cm, 4 cores, Couche Fosco 170g.

Saiba mais: https://www.ultimosrefugios.org.br/reserva-biologica-de-sooretama

Posted on November 27, 2021 19:23 by leonardomercon leonardomercon | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Lançado em 08/07/2021 o Livro Últimos Refúgios: Da Pedra Azul ao Forno Grande

Convidamos você a entrar no coração da Mata Atlântica com o terceiro volume da Série Áreas Protegidas - Últimos Refúgios: Da Pedra Azul ao Forno Grande. A obra retrata as paisagens e a incrível biodiversidade de animais e plantas do Corredor Ecológico entre os municípios de Domingos Martins, Vargem Alta e Castelo, na região Serrana do Espírito Santo. que contempla o Parque Estadual da Pedra Azul (PEPAZ), a Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Águia Branca (RPPN Águia Branca), outras propriedades privadas e o Parque Estadual do Forno Grande (PEFG).

As unidades de conservação são de suma importância para muitas espécies. Algumas delas foram extintas regionalmente por ações do homem, como onças-pintadas, antas, caititus, porcos-do-mato e até macacos monos-carvoeiros. Lutamos para que outras não tenham o mesmo destino, explorando a fotografia de natureza como um recurso para fomentar o conhecimento acerca destas espécies, afinal, as pessoas só protegem o que sabem que existe.

A obra é uma realização do Instituto Últimos Refúgios, organização sem fins lucrativos cada vez mais envolvida na conservação da biodiversidade brasileira.

  • O livro terá recurso de audiodescrição disponibilizado no site do Instituto Últimos Refúgios. A audiodescrição é um recurso de tradução de imagens em palavras, acessível para cegos e pessoas com deficiência visual.

Conheça mais sobre o projeto no site: www.ultimosrefugios.org.br/livro-pepaz-pefg
_
Livro bilíngue (português/inglês);
Capa Dura;
248 páginas 29x23cm;
4 cores;
Couchê Fosco 170g.

Posted on November 27, 2021 18:06 by leonardomercon leonardomercon | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 report summary by Dave Smallshir

  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCT4L6VxzI
    State of Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 report summary by Dave Smallshire

    State of Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 report summary by Dave Smallshire
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCT4L6VxzI
    Dave Smallshire is part of the Editorial team on the State of Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 report. In this video, Dave delves into some of the findings from the report and discusses potential causes and future research needs.
    Read the full report on our website here:

  2. Dave Smallshire - Europe's Dragonflies
    Talk one from our Autumn Meeting which took place online on Saturday 14th November 2020.

    Dave Smallshire - Europe's Dragonflies
    Talk one from our Autumn Meeting which took place online on Saturday 14th November 2020.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zD7kPTBkvbE&list=PLh65JUJK7GolKCSiKQFLAI23HZlvIJ1fi

Posted on November 27, 2021 16:12 by optilete optilete | 0 comments | Leave a comment

257-Dave Smallshire - Europe's Dragonflies

  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCT4L6VxzI
    State of Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 report summary by Dave Smallshire
    300 records is the cut off
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zD7kPTBkvbE&list=PLh65JUJK7GolKCSiKQFLAI23HZlvIJ1fi

    State of Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 report summary by Dave Smallshire
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhCT4L6VxzI
    Dave Smallshire is part of the Editorial team on the State of Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 report. In this video, Dave delves into some of the findings from the report and discusses potential causes and future research needs.
    Read the full report on our website here:

  2. Dave Smallshire - Europe's Dragonflies
    Talk one from our Autumn Meeting which took place online on Saturday 14th November 2020.

    Dave Smallshire - Europe's Dragonflies
    Talk one from our Autumn Meeting which took place online on Saturday 14th November 2020.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zD7kPTBkvbE&list=PLh65JUJK7GolKCSiKQFLAI23HZlvIJ1fi

Posted on November 27, 2021 16:00 by ahospers ahospers | 0 comments | Leave a comment

white water crowfoot identification in Manitoba

Thread-leaved crowfoot Ranunculus trichophyllus
https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/486980-Ranunculus-trichophyllus

a geographical nomenclature split.... Plants of the Wold Online the taxonomic authority for iNaturalist reserves R. aquatilis for the other hemisphere
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:300627-2

this is also the current situation in VASCAN
https://data.canadensys.net/vascan/taxon/19646 Ranunculus trichophyllus

https://data.canadensys.net/vascan/taxon/8501 Ranunculus aquatilis

Plants in Manitoba were formerly known under the name Ranunculus aquatilis var capillaceus or var diffusus - these are now considered synonyms of R. trichophyllus :)

Posted on November 27, 2021 15:42 by marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Larval hostplant data

I have now entered larval substrate or hostplant data for all species on massmoths.org. All substrates recorded specifically from Massachusetts are now denoted by an asterisk(*). Please report any possible errors or additional Massachusetts data.

The larval biologies of 483 species (about 17%) are unknown (of which 97 are considered to be common to very common in the State) and many more have been only poorly documented. There is therefore plenty of scope for discovering and documenting new life histories. On iNaturalist, many larvae are photographed, but invariably no substrate information is given and often the larvae are photographed on a hand or on a road (or other man-made object). When posting a larval observation, please always try to enter the larval hostplant information, if known. Rearing wild-found larvae through to the adult is often the only way to confirm the species' identity and can provide valuable new information on the biology of a species.

Posted on November 27, 2021 14:37 by swhitebread swhitebread | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Budawang Coast Committee elected

AGM held this week, 2 guests speakers were fabulous, and committee was elected.
Chair: Annie Lane
Vice Chair: Fiona Stewart
Treasurer: Mike Jefferis
Secretary: Alison Dalyell
General: Evelyn May, Vicki Barclay, Gerard Prouse, Michael Irving
Welcome to the Committee Gerard and Michael
Looking forward to an exciting 2022

Posted on November 27, 2021 12:53 by barv barv | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Have you joined Budawang Coast Project yet?

Now that GSB 2021 is over, we'll be only posting in our Budawang Coast project.
We've got an exciting year coming up now that our new committee has been elected.
To receive all our news including upcoming events, join
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/budawang-coast-atlas-of-life

Posted on November 27, 2021 12:41 by barv barv | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Budawangia - plant newsletter for our region

Budawangia is an informative monthly plant newsletter published by Dr Kevin Mills - a moderator for Budawang Coast. If you're interested in the native flora of NSW South Coast, want to share current information on the flora of our region and broaden your appreciation of our local native plants, subscribe by emailing kevinmillskma@gmail.com
Here's a sample:
http://www.landcareillawarra.org.au/wp-content/uploads/Budawangia-No.-40-July-15.pdf

Posted on November 27, 2021 12:23 by barv barv | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Budawangia - plant newsletter for our region

Budawangia is an informative monthly plant newsletter published by Dr Kevin Mills - a moderator for Budawang Coast. If you're interested in the native flora of NSW South Coast, want to share current information on the flora of our region and broaden your appreciation of our local native plants, you can subscribe by emailing kevinmillskma@gmail.com
Here's a sample:
http://www.landcareillawarra.org.au/wp-content/uploads/Budawangia-No.-40-July-15.pdf

Posted on November 27, 2021 12:22 by barv barv | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Kanaal 1 met lezingen van de Landelijke Dag 2021

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlAaCiGFYUA
https://www.sovon.nl/sites/default/files/doc/blokkenschema_voor_website.pdf
gridreferencefreeos

  1. Kanaal 1 met lezingen van de Landelijke Dag 2021

    Kanaal 1 met lezingen van de Landelijke Dag 2021

  2. The meeting agenda can be found here: https://british-dragonflies.org.uk/event/2021-autumn-meeting-and-agm/
    Lezing British Dragonfly Society

    https://us06web.zoom.us/j/82387452757?pwd=NHlRbzJDVGk2TXdHQnplMGpYRTR0QT09

  3. https://youtu.be/GUdmKgrpJM0

    https://www.sovon.nl/nl/actueel/nieuws/bekijk-hier-de-lezingen-van-de-landelijke-dag

  4. https://youtu.be/vRdMhbIoA6o

    https://www.sovon.nl/nl/actueel/nieuws/bekijk-hier-de-lezingen-van-de-landelijke-dag
    https://www.sovon.nl/nl/sprekers_LD
    https://www.sovon.nl/sites/default/files/doc/nou_programma_ld2019_in_opmaak.pdf

    https://www.sovon.nl/sites/default/files/doc/blokkenschema_voor_website.pdf

  5. The meeting agenda can be found here: https://british-dragonflies.org.uk/event/2021-autumn-meeting-and-agm/
    Lezing British Dragonfly Society

    https://us06web.zoom.us/j/82387452757?pwd=NHlRbzJDVGk2TXdHQnplMGpYRTR0QT09

  6. Date: Saturday, 27 November 2021
    Time: 9:30 am - 4:30 pm
    Cost: Free but donations appreciated
    Event Category:Meeting run by BDS
    Event Website: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/autumn-meeting-and-agm-online-2021-tickets-123194234271?utm-campaign=social&utm-content=attendeeshare&utm-medium=discovery&utm-term=listing&utm-source=cp&aff=escb
    Location:Online
    Organiser:British Dragonfly Society
    https://british-dragonflies.org.uk/event/2021-autumn-meeting-and-agm/
    Lezing British Dragonfly Society
    https://us06web.zoom.us/j/82387452757?pwd=NHlRbzJDVGk2TXdHQnplMGpYRTR0QT09



    https://british-dragonflies.org.uk/event/2021-autumn-meeting-and-agm/
    9.30am: Welcome
    9.45am: Saving White-faced Darters – David Clarke
    10.15am: Chartley Moss film – Steve White
    10.45am: White-faced Darter Genetics – Dr Matt Geary University of Chester
    11.15am: Break
    11.30am: The Status of the Southern Damselfly in Dorset – Andrew Brown and Kevin Edge
    12.00am: Q & A with available morning speakers
    12.30pm: Northern Damselfly and Staff Update
    1.00pm: AGM – everyone is welcome to stay but only members can vote
    1.30pm – 2.15pm: Lunch – breakout rooms will be open to use for chat
    2.15pm: Dr Jessica Ware (American Museum of Natural History) – Using Evolutionary History to Evaluate the Future of Dragonfly Species
    2.45pm: State of Dragonflies in Britain and Ireland 2021 Overview
    3.15pm: Break
    3.30pm: Dainty Damselflies are Back – Steffan, Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory Trust.
    4.00pm: Q & A with available afternoon speakers
    4.30pm: Close meeting
    https://british-dragonflies.org.uk/event/2021-autumn-meeting-and-agm/
    Lezing British Dragonfly Society
    https://us06web.zoom.us/j/82387452757?pwd=NHlRbzJDVGk2TXdHQnplMGpYRTR0QT09
  7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlAaCiGFYUA&list=PLX3iRAvuDl199JNPFpwNeYg6i3eTqg74Q&index=1

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GUdmKgrpJM0&list=PLX3iRAvuDl199JNPFpwNeYg6i3eTqg74Q&index=2

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRdMhbIoA6o&list=PLX3iRAvuDl199JNPFpwNeYg6i3eTqg74Q&index=3
    https://www.wwf.nl/wat-we-doen/actueel/nieuws/rapport-stikstof-terugdringen

    https://www.wwf.nl/globalassets/afbeeldingen/nieuws/nieuws-2021/210408_rapport-stikstof-van-den-burg-et-al.pdf

  8. https://www.naturetoday.com/intl/nl/nature-reports/message/?msg=28184
    Dat blijkt uit een onderzoek naar de langjarige ontwikkeling van watergebonden insecten. De bevindingen ondersteunen het beheer van de waterschappen dat erop gericht is de waterkwaliteit en biodiversiteit te verbeteren. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd in opdracht van STOWA, het kenniscentrum van de waterschappen.
    https://www.stowa.nl/sites/default/files/assets/NIEUWS/STOWA%20ter%20Info's/STOWA%20ter%20Info%2079/sti%2079.pdf
    In 2017 sloegen Duitse en Nederlandse onderzoekers alarm over de insectenpopulatie in Duitsland. Het aantal vliegende insecten bleek daar sinds 1989 in 63 onderzochte beschermde natuurgebieden met ruim 75 procent te zijn afgenomen. Dit gegeven vormde voor STOWA aanleiding om onderzoek te starten naar de langjarige ontwikkeling van de watergebonden-insectenpopulatie in Nederland. Hiervoor verzamelde EIS Kenniscentrum Insecten over een periode van 27 jaar monitoringgegevens van acht waterschappen. Na een grondige voorbewerking van de basisgegevens werden deze geanalyseerd door wetenschappers van de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
    https://www.stowa.nl/sites/default/files/assets/PUBLICATIES/Publicaties%202021/STOWA%202021-39%20insectenonderzoek.pdf

  9. Meer lezen over waarom vleermuizen schoon water hard nodig hebben?

    Korine, C., Adams, R., Russo, D., Fisher-Phelps, M., & Jacobs, D. (2016). Bats and Water: Anthropogenic Alterations Threaten Global Bat Populations. In Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World (pp. 215–241). Springer International Publishing.

    Dit hoofdstuk en het gehele boek 'Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World' zijn gratis te downloaden op: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-25220-9_8
    Natural bodies of open water in desert landscapes, such as springs and ephemeral pools, and the plant-life they support, are important resources for the survival of animals in hyper arid, arid and semi-arid (dryland) environments. Human-made artificial water sources, i.e. waste-water treatment ponds, catchments and reservoirs, have become equally important for wildlife in those areas. Bodies of open water are used by bats either for drinking and/or as sites over which to forage for aquatic emergent insects. Due to the scarcity of available water for replenishing water losses during roosting and flight, open bodies of water of many shapes and sizes may well be a key resource influencing the survival, activity, resource use and the distribution of insectivorous bats. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of bats living in semi- and arid regions around the world and discuss the factors that influence their richness, behaviour and activity around bodies of water. We further present how increased anthropogenic changes in hydrology and water availability may influence the distribution of species of bats in desert environments and offer directions for future research on basic and applied aspects on bats and the water they use in these environments.

  10. https://www.nporadio1.nl/podcasts/de-jortcast
    https://www.hier.nu/themas/klimaatverandering/dit-is-staat-van-het-klimaat-volgens-wetenschap
    https://www.naturetoday.com/intl/nl/nature-reports/message/?msg=28357
    https://www.brachytron.nl/brachytron-22-supplement/
    https://www.topsectorenergie.nl/agenda/online-evenement-opening-bouwinnovatie-lab-tno

  11. Wist je dat kolonies van broedende Grutto’s een wachter hebben, een mannetje dat de rest alarmeert als er gevaar dreigt? Meer dan 60 jaar geleden beschreef Dane Hans Lind de verschillende geluiden van Grutto’s. Sindsdien heeft de techniek grote stappen gemaakt. We kunnen nu beelden en geluiden vastleggen die we niet eerder waarnamen. Dat werpt de vraag op: wat kunnen we nog meer leren over de taal van de Grutto? Ondřej Belfín, een Tjechische masterstudent, deed dit voorjaar onderzoek naar de geluiden van Grutto’s, onder leiding van prof. Theunis Piersma. Vier maanden lang nam hij non-stop geluiden op in het land van Murk Nijdam, de bekende Friese weidevogelboer met hoge dichtheden van Grutto’s op zijn land. Ondrej ontdekte dat Grutto’s een heel specifieke geluiden maken om verschillende roofdieren aan te kondigen. Zo roepen ze anders bij een hoog overvliegende Buizerd dan bij een jagende Bruine Kiekendief. Naast luide geluiden, zoals het bekende “gru-to gru-to”, laten ze ook een heel repertoire aan roepjes horen die voor hun partner of kuikens dichtbij bedoeld zijn.

    Tijdens zijn lezing zal Ondřej ons meenemen in de geluiden op en rond een gruttonest, vanaf het leggen van het eerste ei tot aan het uitkomen van het laatste ei. Deze nieuwe geluidskennis kan bijvoorbeeld vogelaars die weidevogels inventariseren beter leren begrijpen wat ze nu precies zien gebeuren.

    Deze lezing wordt gehouden in het Engels

  12. Het intieme leven van Drentse paapjes
    Herman van Oosten (Oenanthe Ecologie)
    in samenwerking met Pauline Alefs, Willem van Manen (Sovon) & Stef Waasdorp (Stichting Biosfeer)

    Paapjes verdwijnen uit Nederland, grotendeels door hun voorliefde voor extensief gebruikt wei- en hooiland. Raadselachtiger is het afnemen in natuurgebieden: aan welke paapjeswensen wordt te weinig invulling gegeven? Omdat populatieontwikkelingen bij zangvogels worden gestuurd door het aantal uitgevlogen jongen en de mate van nestpredatie, verdiepen we ons sinds kort in het intieme leven van paapjes in Drenthe. Zo willen we weten welke prooien aan hun jongen worden gevoerd in natte hei, veen en beekdalen, hoe vaak de jongen gevoerd worden en wat de overleving is van jongen in het nest en de onwaarschijnlijk mooie azuren eieren. Basale kennis die ook voor deze bruinogige weidetapuit nauwelijks voorhanden is, maar wel voor de nauwverwante roodborsttapuit: vormt een vergelijkende studie een sleutel tot inzicht?
    300 records is the cut off
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zD7kPTBkvbE&list=PLh65JUJK7GolKCSiKQFLAI23HZlvIJ1fi

Posted on November 27, 2021 09:07 by ahospers ahospers | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Результаты конкурса

Итак, пришло время огласить победителей конкурса «Мир птиц Владимирской области», который проводился с 1 апреля по 31 октября 2021 года. Т.е. все время, пока у птиц была высокая активность.

Пару слов о самой идее проведения конкурса. Целью этого мероприятия было привлечение внимания жителей Владимирской области к наблюдению за птицами. В этом плане наш регион, к сожалению, отстает от большинства наших соседей. Бедрвотчинг вносит очень большой вклад в развитие орнитологии регионов, т.к. бердвотчеры, как правило, имеют большую мобильность и возможность наблюдать птиц в разных уголках области. Конкурс с призами – это то, что могло бы подстегнуть людей больше наблюдать за птицами, а главное, фиксировать эти наблюдения.

Всего в конкурсе приняли участие 8 человек, из городов Владимира, Коврова, Радужного, а также из Кольчугинского и Юрьев-Польского районов. Общее число наблюдений составило 1254, зафиксировано 180 видов (68,2% от орнитофауны региона, данные подсчета на 01.11.21). Конкурс проводился на платформе «iNaturalist.org».

Отдельную благодарность выражаем Дирекции ООПТ за поддержку конкурса и участие в награждении победителей, Владимирскому экзотариуму – за предоставление помещения для награждения и бонусы для участников конкурса.

Перед объявлением победителей напомним о том, как проходило их выявление.
В конкурсе было выделено 4 номинации «Наблюдатель года», «Птица года 2021», «Редкий экземпляр», «Редкая находка 2021».

  1. Наблюдатель года
    победа присуждается участнику конкурса, который набрал наибольшее количество наблюдений птиц по всей территории Владимирской области.

  2. Птица года 2021 – обыкновенный кобчик
    победа присуждается участнику конкурса, который за период его проведения зафиксировал наибольшее количество кобчиков на территории региона.

  3. Редкий экземпляр
    Победа присуждается участнику, который за время проведения конкурса зафиксировал наибольшее количество видов птиц, занесенных в Красную книгу Владимирской области и приложение 1 к ней.

  4. Редкая находка 2021
    Победа присуждается участнику, который сделал самое редкое наблюдение (например, обнаружил новый вид для региона или подтвердил гнездование вида на территории области) за период проведения конкурса.

Один участник может быть награжден только в одной номинации! То есть, если у участника уже есть победа в номинации «Наблюдатель года» и он же набрал наибольшее количество видов в номинации «Птица года 2021», то победа во второй номинации будет присуждена участнику, который в этой номинации занял второе место. Исключением является только номинация «Редкая находка 2021», т.е. один участник может получить победу в номинации «Редкий экземпляр» и одновременно в номинации «Редкая находка 2021».

Итак.

Победителем в номинации «Наблюдатель года» объявляется Дмитрий Пожарский, сделавший 345 наблюдений 160 видов птиц!

В номинации «Птица года 2021» побеждает Михаил Малышев, занявший 2 место.

Победа в номинации «Редкий экземпляр» присуждается Наташе Мельниковой, занявшей 3 место.

К сожалению, в этом году среди участников конкурса не было людей, которые бы нашли новый вид для региона или, например, подтвердили гнездование одного из редких видов, у которого ранее этого подтверждено не было. Поэтому номинация «Редкая находка 2021» осталась без своего «героя».

Обращаем ваше внимание, что призы будут вручены ВСЕМ участникам конкурса.

Общая статистика:
Дмитрий Пожарский (@pozh_dm): 160 видов, 345 наблюдений
Михаил Малышев (@mikhail_87_): 134 вида, 197 наблюдений
Наталья Мельникова (@tashamel): 98 видов, 179 наблюдений
Виктор Степанов (@vist): 53 вида, 119 наблюдений
Михаил Голомыслов (@mikhail_golomysov): 95 видов, 55 наблюдений
Валерий Савельев (@svp59): 42 вида, 234 наблюдения
Катерина Киселева (@uneetoil): 33 видов, 85 наблюдений
Людмила Крышковец (@lyudmila_kryshkovets): 0 видов, 0 наблюдений

Всем спасибо за участие! Информация о дате и месте награждения будет разослана лично каждому участнику на электронную почту.

Posted on November 27, 2021 08:54 by jul_b jul_b | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Interesting & significant finds in the GSB - Argentina

Con tantas primeras observaciones en iNaturalist durante el GSB, ¡puede ser difícil rastrearlas! por eso he hecho un post de diario para todas las interesantes observaciones argentinas.
Más países a seguir

Primera observación en iNat, segunda Dolichandra dentata, que fantástico hallazgo por @adriana_noemi

Primer récord de ArgentiNa Angelonia salicariifolia, que fantástico hallazgo por @matiascabezas


Primera observación en iNat, segunda de agallas Eucecidoses minutanus en las ramas de Molle Schinus longifolia, que fantástico hallazgo por @martin_arregui
Galls of Cecidoses eremita Curtis and Eucecidoses minutanus Brèthes (Lepidoptera: Cecidosidae) in Magdalena, Buenos Aires Province: preliminary study and associated fauna

Primera observación en iNat, segunda de agallas Cecidoses eremita en las ramas de Molle Schinus longifolia, que fantástico hallazgo por @martin_arregui

Primera observación en iNat, segunda Valdiviomyia ruficauda, que fantástico hallazgo por @adriana_noemi

Primera observación en iNat, segunda Agripialus, John Grehan (@johngrehan) "Este es un nuevo registro para el género (hasta ahora documentado principalmente para la región costera oriental) y ninguna especie aún determinada para Argentina (un registro naturalista y una especie desconocida del norte de los Andes argentinos). Cualquier posibilidad de obtener especímenes para estudio. Podría ser una nueva especie. Probablemente un pastizal / pastizal , que fantástico hallazgo por @laurabm2020

Primera observación en iNat, segunda Ipomoea malpighipila, que fantástico hallazgo por @javierelias

Primera observación en iNat, segunda Justicia dumetorum, que fantástico hallazgo por @hhulsberg

Primera observación en iNat, segunda Mimoides microdamas, Michelle Delaloye @michelledelaloye Señala "Resulta que esta observación y secuencia de fotos es muy interesante. No solo sí que hay una Battus polydamas (la que vuela abajo, fijate que no posee hilera marginal de manchas amarillas en faz ventral de alas posteriores), sino que además hay una Mimoides microdamas, la primera reportada para todo iNaturalist (al menos, que yo tenga conocimiento). Mimoides microdamas es una imitadora de Battus polydamas, y se distingue de ella por poseer una mancha roja en el ángulo anal de alas posteriores, visible en ambas fases (B. polydamas no posee dicha mancha en faz dorsal). Además, respecto de la hilera de manchas amarillas en alas anteriores, terminan más alargadas hacia la costa y ápice (en polydamas se van achicando). Y bueno, como ya mencioné, esa hilera en faz ventral de alas posteriores no está presente en polydamas. Sería genial que pudieses subir algunos recortes a esta observación, además de las fotos que ya están, para tener algunas más cercanas. Enhorabuena Gustavo, ¡felicitaciones por el hallazgo, y muchas gracias por compartirlo! " que fantástico hallazgo por @trekman

Primer récord de ArgentiNa Camptosema praeandinum, que fantástico hallazgo por @faty_y

Primer récord de ArgentiNa Micrathena crassa, que fantástico hallazgo por @faty_y


Primer récord de ArgentiNa Micrathena crassa que fantástico hallazgo por @fivannacruz

Primera observación en iNat, segunda Justicia dumetorum, que fantástico hallazgo por @hhulsberg

Avíseme si me he perdido alguno a continuación y lo agregaré

Manténgase en contacto suscríbase a nuestro boletín https://greatsouthernbiobl.wixsite.com/website/contact

Posted on November 27, 2021 05:23 by stephen169 stephen169 | 9 comments | Leave a comment

Ledyard Stebbins Gave us Ehrharta

Mostly a note to myself so I don't forget, but today Janet Gawthrop told me Ehrharta erecta became invasive in California because of a research project at UC Berkeley investigating the effects of ploidy on adaptation. Investigating later, I was rather horrified to learn that Ledyard Stebbins intentionally mutated these plants to create tetraploid versions and intentionally planted both diploid and tetraploid plants in the hills above UC Berkeley, in Napa, and near Monterey in a multi-decade study starting in the 1940s. His papers don't seem to mention any kind of containment or eradication strategy, so it seems likely that his efforts led directly to the rather extreme invasion of this plant we have to deal with in coastal CA today. The tetraploids died off, but the diploids flourished.

A note in the 1949 paper suggests it might have already been established on the UC Berkeley campus before the study began:

The artificial autotetraploid of E. erecta, produced from plants spontaneous on the University of California campus, is taller, coarser, and has fewer tillers than its diploid progenitor (Fig. l)

But still, Ledyard, way to screw over vast swaths of California native plants in the name of science.

Posted on November 27, 2021 05:05 by kueda kueda | 3 comments | Leave a comment

Все текущие статусы выполнения домашних заданий в одном посте

Уважаемые слушатели!

Это пост со ссылками на текущие статусы выполнения домашних заданий.

Домашнее задание №1 (обновлено 26.11.2021):
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g/journal/59748-tekuschiy-status-vypolneniya-domashnego-zadaniya-1-26-11-2021

Домашнее задание №2 (обновлено 17.11.2021):
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g/journal/59795-tekuschiy-status-vypolneniya-domashnego-zadaniya-2-17-11-2021

Домашнее задание №3 (обновлено 18.11.2021):
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g/journal/59824-tekuschiy-status-vypolneniya-domashnego-zadaniya-3-18-11-2021

Домашнее задание №4 (обновлено 26.11.2021):
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g/journal/59764-itogi-vypolneniya-domashnego-zadaniya-4-26-11-2021

Сделали менее 10 наблюдений (ДЗ №3+ДЗ №4, обновлено 27.11.2021):
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g/journal/59143-sdelali-menee-10-nablyudeniy-27-11-2021

Домашнее задание №5 (обновлено 28.11.2021):
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g/journal/60050-tekuschiy-status-vypolneniya-domashnego-zadaniya-5-26-11-2021


Вопросы преподавателю можно задать в комментариях.

Posted on November 27, 2021 03:33 by apseregin apseregin | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Okanagan Rail Trail Flora and Fauna

Under development.

Posted on November 26, 2021 23:00 by darylnolan darylnolan | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Wet weather brings out the frogs

Dear lorikeet observers,

Thanks to all of you who are checking for lorikeets, particularly @janice220, who is making contributions nearly every week.

On another note, you all might be interested in checking out the Australian Museum's FrogID app. It is free and pretty easy to use. It lets you record frog calls on your property or elsewhere and will identify them for you and then you can send them in so they can be logged with all the other data that is being collected. Right now, I have 5 species of frogs calling within 50 metres of my home.

This is a great project as there has been a mass mortality event of frogs this year occurring on the east coast of Australia and this data will help to determine what the impact of this die off has been and if certain species have been more impacted that others.

Have a great week and if the lorikeets are scarce listen for frogs.

Yours,

David
Maya
Lauren

Posted on November 26, 2021 22:03 by david4262 david4262 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Explaining the extreme growth-form of Gardenia in the Serengeti

(writing in progress)

Gardenia volkensii grows as isolated individuals, a large shrub here or a small tree there, in the Serengeti ecosystem. It would hardly be noticed were it not for its extreme sculpting by large mammals:

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-tippelskirchi-masai-mara-park-in-kenya-gm1262783396-369525685 and https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffes-fighting-gm1191233110-337981747 and https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffes-fighting-gm1191233151-337981921 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8077390.

It is hard to describe this growth-form but 'green coralloid', 'botanical statue' and 'magnified bonsai' come to mind.

Many species of woody plants are subject to foraging by large mammals, and various species of Gardenia occur in various other environments without being particularly noticeable. So what is it about this species, in this ecosystem, that has led to a natural form of topiary?

Here is general information on this species: https://treesa.org/gardenia-volkensii/ and http://pza.sanbi.org/gardenia-volkensii#:~:text=Distribution%20description,KwaZulu%2DNatal%20in%20the%20southeast and https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=169130 and https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:751323-1 and https://www.randomharvest.co.za/South-African-Indigenous-Plants/Show-Plant/PlantId/159/Plant/Gardenia-volkensii?Filter=All and https://www.seedsforafrica.co.za/products/gardenia-volkensii-transvaal-gardenia-indigenous-south-african-shrub-tree-10-seeds and https://www.ecoorganicgarden.com.au/gardening-tips/how-to-grow-gardenias/.

This is my current best guess: Gardenia is ecologically odd in combining three modes: a particular proneness to nutrient-deficiencies, particularly slow growth, and spinelessness.

Because Gardenia volkensii grows only on nutrient-enriched soils, its leaves are somewhat attractive to folivores. Because it is 'hardwired' to grow slowly even in response to losses, it has a defensive strategy against defoliation rather than capitalising on the faeces and urine of its defoliators and replacing its shoots rapidly in compensation. And because it is 'hardwired' to lack spines, it has found an unusual way to hug its leaves so close to its stems that plucking them becomes too time-consuming for giraffes in particular.

Gardenias are indigenous to Africa, Asia and Australia, and have become horticultural favourites. However, it seems to be only in the Serengeti that this genus is conspicuously modified by the pressures exerted by large mammals:

https://www.alamy.com/kenya-masai-mara-game-reserve-gardenia-tree-in-blossom-and-wildebeest-grazing-image246151349.html and https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-6-month-lion-cub-panthera-leo-up-in-gardenia-tree-masai-mara-gr-kenya-nature-image01034053.html and https://www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g294209-d804877-i55550011-Entim_Camp-Maasai_Mara_National_Reserve_Rift_Valley_Province.html and https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/savannah-gardenia-gardenia-volkensii-fruit-masai-mara-game-reserve-kenya/FHR-52727-00001-029 and https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-six-month-old-lion-cub-in-gardenia-tree-masai-mara-kenya-nature-image01034052.html and https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-six-month-old-lion-cubs-in-gardenia-tree-masai-mara-kenya-nature-image01034054.html and https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-lion-panthera-leo-6-months-cub-in-gardenia-tree-masai-mara-kenya-nature-image01034050.html and https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-lion-panthera-leo-6-months-cub-in-gardenia-tree-masai-mara-kenya-nature-image01034048.html and http://www.imagesafaris.com/2012-06-18-masai-mara-nr-kenya/.

In trying to understand the niche of any organism, a challenge is to distinguish cause and effect, and to infer the central 'life-history strategy'.

My reasoning, in the case of the genus Gardenia, the species G. volkensii, and the population in the Serengeti, is based on the following observations and inferences, in no particular order.

Gardenia is oddly inefficient nutritionally, in the sense that it is prone to micronutrient deficiencies (as frequently noticed in horticulture) despite having a conservative profile as a plant which grows its stems, leaves and fruits slowly. It makes sense that such a plant would benefit from the nutrient-recycling by megaherbivores that characterises e.g. the Serengeti ecosystem. So its presence here, at least in small numbers, is unsurprising.

Furthermore, Gardenia volkensii is unusual in its genus in being specialised for the dispersal and sowing of its seeds by large mammals.

The persistent fruits are technically fleshy (zoochorous) as in the rest of the genus. However, in G. volkensii they are remarkably specialised in their large size, leatheriness and lifespan. The 'ripe' fruits seem designed mainly for the bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the eland (Taurotragus oryx). They are too large to fit into the gentle, pursed mouths of giraffes; they may be out of reach of the hook-lipped rhino (Diceros bicornis); and the greater kudu (Strepsiceros zambesiensis) chews its food too finely for many seeds to survive, and does not occur in this habitat in the Serengeti anyway.

The zoochory of G. volkensii is therefore another function of the 'megaherbivory' of the Serengeti. However, plants maintained in sculpted form are unlikely to produce fruits.

The bush elephant is likely to break the branches of G. volkensii, to which this plant seems adapted by the toughness of the wood. It is both the gnarled stemwork (e.g. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88581599) and the form of the foliage that sets G. volkensii apart. Were it not for the damage by the Bush elephant, the growth-form might be more like this: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/99477343.

Thus our puzzle seems to resolve to the relationship between this species and a combination of pressures from the bush elephant, Giraffa tippelskirchi, and perhaps the eland, within the particularly intensive regime of the Serengeti.

(writing in progress)

Posted on November 26, 2021 16:35 by milewski milewski | 3 comments | Leave a comment

Guide to the identification of species of the genus Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville, 1831 of continental North America north of Mexico

The genus Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville, 1831 is a member of the tribe Anisoscelini in the subfamily Coreinae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae), including relatively few species. In continental North America north of Mexico, five genera and 21 species of the tribe are reliably known, including 12 species of Leptoglossus

Although external characters may identify all of these species, their misidentifications in iNaturalist are not uncommon. Unfortunately, all existing keys for identifying genus species are either somewhat outdated (Hussey, 1953; McPherson et al., 1990), or include all species of genera (including those outside the United States and Canada) (Allen, 1969; Brailovsky, 2014), or, conversely, species of the fauna of only certain states (Baranowski and Slater, 1986).

In addition, existing identification keys are designed to identify collected specimens and often are based on features that are difficult to see in photos. This key I have tried to compile on the contrary, primarily for identifying observations in nature. To help observers identify genus species more reliably, I have attempted to compile a simplified key for species living in the continental United States and Canada.

The key implies the identification of adults only because, in nymphs, many important characters are not visible or poorly developed. Nymphs are easily distinguished by the absence of fully developed wings. Additionally, there is a list of species known from Mexico with their features. For convenience, species are not divided into groups (see Brailovsky, 2014), because some characters used to separate them are not always available to the observer.

Of course, I would sincerely appreciate any comments or clarifications. I am not a professional taxonomist, so please do not judge my attempt too harshly. My main goal was to better understand the identification of these species myself.

I also apologize for any grammatical and stylistic errors - English is not my first language. Of course, I will be grateful for any advice on correcting the text.

I am very grateful to @michaelpirrello and @ncb1221 for discussing the differences in Leptoglossus species , and hints, which gave me many good ideas.

I would like to sincerely thank the community members who have posted their photos under a license that allows its use. This has given me an excellent opportunity to add illustrations to this text. Of course, I will remove it here if there are any objections to such use, leaving a direct link to the observation.

 Members of the genus Leptoglossus are relatively easy to distinguish from other North American Coreidae by combining the shape of the hind tibia and antennae. The tibiae always have noticeable dilations on both outer and inner sides. At the same time, extensions are always noticeably not reaching the apex of tibiae and either elongate (lanceolate) or have more or less deep notches separated by denticles. Some species of Acanthocephala have slightly similar hind tibiae among Coreidae. Still, they are easily distinguished by head form, which does not go forward beyond the base of the antennal base, except for narrow tylus flattened from sides. Segments of the antennae of species of genus Leptoglossus are cylindrical (not widened and not flattened). The first is approximately equal to the distance from its base to the base of the head, or noticeably longer (but not shorter).

Since some genera of the tribe Anisoscelini are also sometimes confused with Leptoglossus, it seems helpful to list them with an explanation of the differences and features, in descending order of external resemblance to the genus.

List of the genera of the tribe Anisoscelini that occur in the continental United States and Canada

Narnia Stål, 1862

All six known species of the genus were reported from the south of the United States. 

Species of this genus are somewhat similar to Leptoglossus with narrow extensions of hind tibiae, and sometimes they are confused either with L. occidentalis (more often species of subgenus Narnia s.str. - N. femorata, N. inornata) or with L. clypealis (species of subgenus Xerocoris, first of all, N. snowi). Even one of the species described in the genus Narnia was, in fact, L. occidentalis (see Brailovsky, 2014). There is a modern key for identifying species of the genus (Brailovsky and Barrera, 2013).

Differences from Leptoglossus: the 1st segment of antennae is always noticeably (at least one and a half times) shorter than the distance from its base to the base of the head.

Host plants: cactus (Cactaceae).

Length 12-20 mm.

Chondrocera Laporte, 1832

Only one species in Florida - Chondrocera laticornis Laporte, 1832.

Differences from Leptoglossus: 2nd and 3rd antennomeres are narrowly dilated; dilation of hind tibiae from outside very broad, gradually decreasing backward, with the rounded notch, without denticles; inside narrow and short (about half of tibiae length), with a smooth margin.

The coloration is light brown, the anterior part of the pronotum, part of the head, femora, and ventral side of the body lighter yellowish or greenish. Contrasting light spots or bands are always absent.

Host plants: Turnera, Passiflora.

Length 16-18 mm.

Anisoscelis Latreille, 1829

One of the species of subgenus Bitta is known in south Texas - Anisoscelis affinis Westwood, 1840. The recently described closely related Anisoscelis luridus Brailovsky, 2016 is also possible there.

It is similar to Chondrocera laticornis in general appearance and shape of hind tibiae. Still, antennal segments in adults are not dilated (unlike nymphs), and dilations of hind tibiae are more extensive, almost the same width and length as the whole body behind the pronotum.

Host plants: Passiflora.

Length 13-18 mm.

Phthiacnemia Brailovsky, 2009

In the south of the USA (from California to Florida), the only species from the previously considered separate tribe Leptoscelini, Phthiacnemia picta (Drury, 1773) (= Phthia picta), is distributed.

It differs from all Anisoscelini in the USA and Canada by not widening hind tibiae. Black, sometimes bluish coloration, with variable (or even absent) red or yellow patterns.

Host plants: Most likely breeds only on Solanum nigrum but can feed on many plants (see Baranowski & Slater, 1986).

Length 14-16 mm.

Narnia snowi © Robert Webster

Narnia inornata © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Narnia inornata © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Chondrocera laticornis By Lila

Chondrocera laticornis By Lila

Anisoscelis affinis © jmmaes

Phthiacnemia picta © Diogo Luiz

Narnia snowi

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Narnia inornata

© Juan Cruzado Cortés, CC BY-SA

Narnia inornata, head and 1st antennomere

© Juan Cruzado Cortés, CC BY-SA

Chondrocera laticornis

By Lila, CC 0

Chondrocera laticornis, antennae

By Lila, CC 0

Anisoscelis affinis

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Phthiacnemia picta

© Diogo Luiz, CC BY-SA

Key to the identification of species of the genus Leptoglossus of continental North America north of Mexico:

1a Tylus (apex of the head) is extended into a narrow projection that protrudes far forward (the projection length is about equal to the width of the 1st antennomere, or longer).

Dilation of hind tibiae is narrow as in occidentalis and corculus but slightly dentate in the outer side. It is also well distinguished from these species by always bright and well visible transverse light fascia on corium. The width and sinuosity of this fascia can vary greatly, but it is always located not only on veins but also on the surface of the corium. Similar fascia have L. zonatus. But in this species, the anterior part's pronotum always has two distinctly separated light spots (and hind tibiae with much wider and emarginate extensions). In L. clypealis, the anterior part of the pronotum is usually slightly lighter than the posterior, but the light part does not occur in the form of 2 distinct spots. Sometimes this light part has a rather sharp contrasting border, but it looks like one trapezoidal spot. The general coloration varies from dark brown to reddish, often irregular.

Leptoglossus clypealis Heidemann, 1910

Length is 16-20 mm.

Distribution. Before the middle of the XX century, it was known only from the western United States. Now it is distributed from the Pacific to Atlantic and from Mexico to southern Canada.

Host plants. The main plants on which the species breeds are junipers (Juniperus) (possibly other species of the Cupressaceae family) and fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica); adults also feed on pistachio, almond, and plum (Wheeler, 2018). Some keys mention "ornamental pomegranate."

Leptogloccus clypealis By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago

Leptogloccus clypealis By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago

Leptogloccus clypealis By Mirko Schoenitz

Leptogloccus clypealis © strix_v

Leptogloccus clypealis By pynklynx

Leptogloccus clypealis, wide fascia

By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago, CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis, head and tylus

By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago, CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis, hind tibia

By Mirko Schoenitz, CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis, narrow fascia

© strix_v, CC BY-NC

Leptogloccus clypealis, "usual" fascia

By pynklynx, CC 0

1b Tylus isn’t extended into a narrow projection and doesn’t protrude far forward - only much less (about ½ or less) than the width of the 1st antennomere). - 2

2a Dilations of hind tibiae are narrow, lanceolate, on the outer side, without any clear emargination or denticles. - 3

2b Dilations of hind tibiae are much wider and (or) on the outer side with the visible emargination and denticles. - 4

3a The inner and the outer dilation of the hind tibiae are about equal in length and occupy about ⅔ (less than 70%) of the maximal length of the hind tibiae (note that the lower dilation may be concave at the apex and appear shorter because of this). The apical ("free") part of the tibia is longer than the width of the dilations (outer and inner together). Inner dilation may seem slightly shorter than outer because of the concave edge at the apex.

Coloration is more or less variegated, with light spots (including in the anterior part of the pronotum). The transverse light fascia of corium is always pale, present only on veins, irregular (zigzag).

Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910

Length is 16-18 mm.

Distribution. Until the 1950s, it was occurring only in western North America (east of Colorado). Still, now it is the most widespread species of the genus, having inhabited North America (except the Arctic) and almost all regions of the Earth with suitable climate and host plants.

Host plants are mostly pines (Pinus spp.) and some other conifers (spruce, fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga canadensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Cupressus sempervirens).

3b The inner and the outer dilation of the hind tibiae are unequal in length. The outer occupies more than ⅘ (85% or more, usually about 90%) of the maximal length of the tibia. The apical ("free") part of the tibia is equal to the width of the outer dilation and shorter (usually significantly) than the width of outer and inner together.

Coloration is similar to L. occidentalis but usually less variegated and more monoсchromatic.

Leptoglossus corculus (Say, 1832).

Length is 16-19 mm.

Distribution. East of the U.S. west to Illinois and Kansas, south to Texas.

Host plants are pines (Pinus spp.).

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Ryan Hodnett

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Steve Daniels

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Chris Moody

Leptoglossus corculus By kcthetc1

Leptoglossus corculus © Nathan Richardson

Leptoglossus corculus © Nicole Hartig

Leptoglossus occidentalis

© Ryan Hodnett, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus occidentalis, hind tibia

© Steve Daniels, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus occidentalis, tibia with slightly unequal dilations

© Chris Moody, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus corculus

By kcthetc1, CC 0

Leptoglossus corculus, hind tibia

© Nathan Richardson, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus corculus, hind tibia with short outer dilation (but ~85% of the length of the tibia)

© Nicole Hartig, CC BY-SA

4a Pronotum has separated (the border of differently colored areas clear and contrasting) from the rest of its (dark) surface light spots or stripes. - 5

4b Pronotum is more or less monochromatic - the front and (or) central part of it is often lighter but without contrasting border. - 6

5a Pronotum with a narrow transverse yellowish or reddish stripe in its front part.

It is also well distinguished from all other species by the lateral corners of the pronotum elongated into sharp spines and by bright spots on the underside of the body (the same coloration as the stripe on the pronotum). Segments 2 - 4 of antennae are usually also contrastingly bicolored. The corium is without a light fascia, with a small light spot in the middle.

Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabricius, 1775).

Length is 16-19 mm.

Distribution. The species is distributed in the tropics and the south of the subtropics of the whole world. In the USA, it is known mainly from Texas and Florida. Old records in Iowa (1930) and Missouri (1965) (GBIF) are probably the results of accidental entering; the population there is unlikely. How this relates to reliable observations in Virginia (Naturalist) needs to be clarified.

It is a polyphagous species, feeding on many vegetables, fruits, ornamental and wild plants.

5b Pronotum with a more or less broad yellowish or reddish stripe along all lateral and posterior margins, closing into a ring behind the anterior margin. Corium with a broad bright fascia of the same color (similar to L. clypealis and L. zonatus). Antennae are monochromatic.

Leptoglossus ashmeadi Heidemann, 1909

Its length is 14-16.5 mm.

Distribution. Southeastern USA from Texas to South Carolina. Rare species.

Host plants. Probably the only host plant is the mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum (maybe some other species of the genus as well).

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus ashmeadi © amarcianae

Leptoglossus ashmeadi By enne_t

Leptoglossus gonagra

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus gonagra, tibia

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus gonagra, lower side of the body

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus ashmeadi

© amarcianae, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus ashmeadi

By enne_t, CC 0

5c Pronotum in the anterior part with two distinctly delimited light spots.

The transversal fascia of the corium is irregular ("zigzag"), usually as in L. clypealis (for distinguishing, see the coloration of the pronotum and form of hind tibiae). The width of the fascia and intensity of its coloration varies greatly. Still, the light coloration is always present not only on veins but also on the surface of corium, and it does not have such straight edges as in L. phyllopus. Sometimes the fascia is reduced to a few oblique lines. The light spots of the pronotum can also be rather pale (and vary somewhat in size and shape) but always have a contrasting border. This character allows the unmistakable differentiation of L. zonatus from L. phyllopus when doubting the shape of the fascia on the corium.

Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852).

Length is 17-21 mm.

Distribution. The Southern United States from northern California to South Carolina. One of the most common species in Central and Northern South America.

Host plants. Polyphagous breeds and feeds on many plants, including cultivated plants (vegetables, fruits, ornamental plants, etc.).

Note. There is an old (most likely erroneous - see Baranowski & Slater, 1986) mention for Florida of a Caribbean species with similar coloration, Leptoglossus balteatus (Linnaeus, 1771). It differs from L. zonatus in the coloration of the pronotum. The spots in its anterior part are larger, triangular, widened in the posterior part toward its lateral margin; the posterior margin of the pronotum also has a yellow stripe.  The fascia of the corium is straight (as of L. phyllopus - see below).

Leptoglossus zonatus © jmmaes

Leptoglossus zonatus © Konstantin Grebennikov

Leptoglossus zonatus © Konstantin Grebennikov

Leptoglossus zonatus By Jesse Rorabaugh

Leptoglossus zonatus © beejay

Leptoglossus zonatus © Jacob Simon

Leptoglossus balteatus © Martin Reith

Leptoglossus zonatus

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus zonatus, hind tibia

© Konstantin Grebennikov, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus, narrow fascia

© Konstantin Grebennikov, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus, "usual" fascia

By Jesse Rorabaugh, CC 0

Leptoglossus zonatus, wide fascia

© beejay, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus, pale coloration

© Jacob Simon, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus balteatus

© Martin Reith, CC BY-NC

6a Corium always has a clearly visible, continuous transverse light fascia with a straight anterior and posterior margin. The width of this fascia varies, but it never forms a "zigzag" line as in L. zonatus. See also the differences of these species described above (5c).

Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linnaeus, 1767).

Note. Some L. phyllopus with the light anterior part of the pronotum are incredibly similar to L. zonatus with the broad fascia of the corium. There is even a particular project for such specimens: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/leptoglossus-phyllopus-with-distinct-pronotum-spots. Nevertheless, even in this case, the spots of the pronotum do not have a clear border. And the fascia is without sharp projections above and below.

Length is 17-20 mm.

Distribution. The Eastern United States, from New York to Texas (westward to approximately Illinois and Kansas). More western records need clarification. It is widely distributed in Central America (as far as Costa Rica).

A polyphagous species, breeding and feeding on various plants.

Leptoglossus phyllopus By Craig Martin

Leptoglossus phyllopus © wildcarrot

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Meghan Cassidy

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Brooke Smith

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Meghan Cassidy

Leptoglossus phyllopus

By Craig Martin CC 0

Leptoglossus phyllopus, hind tibia

© wildcarrot, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus phyllopus

© Meghan Cassidy, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus phyllopus with blurred light spots on the pronotum

© Brooke Smith, CC BY

Leptoglossus phyllopus with blurred light spots on the pronotum

© Meghan Cassidy, CC BY-SA

6b Corium without continuous straight transverse fascia: either completely monochromatic, small oblique light marks on veins, or irregular light fascia (as in L. zonatus). - 7

7a Corium is always monochromatic, without any light spots, stripes, or marks, or veins lighter than the background. Lateral corners of the pronotum strongly protrude, its margins serrate, and the surface has a rough granular structure. Middle and fore legs and antennae are contrastingly lighter than hind legs, almost monochromatically reddish-brown. Dilations of hind tibiae are slightly narrower and shorter than in all following species.

Leptoglossus fulvicornis (Westwood, 1842).

Length is 18-25 mm.

Distribution. Eastern North America from New York and southern Ontario to Texas (westward to Indiana and Arkansas). The range of the species almost coincides with the natural distribution of magnolias.

Host plants are magnolias (Magnolia spp.) only.

7b Corium has at least one oblique light mark in the middle, additional marks, or zigzag transverse fascia, or its veins are contrastingly lighter than the background.  Lateral corners of the pronotum are less projecting, rarely serrate (see below), and the surface is more smooth . The coloration of legs and antennae is less contrasting (at least the outer part of antennal segment 1 is brown). Dilations of the hind tibiae are slightly broader and longer.  -8

8a Veins of the corium are contrastingly lighter than the background, in the anterior part reddish, in posterior one yellowish. Corium doesn't have small light marks or fascia in its middle. Dilations of hind tibiae are narrower and shorter.

Leptoglossus jacquelinae Brailovsky, 1976. 

It's a little-known species that was described from Mexico (Monterrey, Nuevo-Leon). In October of 2018, one specimen was observed in Texas (San-Antonio) (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17392507). At the moment, it is difficult to give any additional information about this species.

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © keyojimbo

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © Mike Ostrowski

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © edgeelementary

Leptoglossus jaquelinae © Annie

Leptoglossus fulvicornis

© keyojimbo, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus fulvicornis, pronotum

© Mike Ostrowski, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus fulvicornis, hind tibia

© edgeelementary, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus jaquelinae

© Annie, CC BY-NC

8b Veins of the corium are of the same color as the background, except for the small oblique mark or irregular transversal fascia. Dilations of the hind tibiae are wider and longer. - 9

Note. The following three species are the most difficult to distinguish, especially from photographs. Often a clear image of the characters is needed, in some cases a bottom view with a clear image of the labium or information about the size of the specimen.

9a Corium usually has only one oblique light mark in the middle but may have 1 or even (rare) 2 additional pale marks, forming a semblance of indistinct fascia. Segment 1 of antennae unicolor, brown. Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is smooth.

Leptoglossus oppositus (Say, 1832).

Length is 18-20 mm.

Distribution. The eastern half of the USA (from New York, Michigan, and Nebraska to Florida, Texas, and Arizona), Mexico.

Probably the most polyphagous species. It breeds on plants in 15 families of gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and dicotyledons (Mitchell and Wheeler, 2008), and adults can feed on even more species.

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Annika Lindqvist

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus, head and 1st antennomere

© Annika Lindqvist, CC BY

Leptoglossus oppositus, hind tibia

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus, corium with additional mark

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus, corium with additional mark

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

9b Corium with more or less distinct zigzag transverse light fascia. Segment 1 of antennae bicolor: from the outer side dark (brown), from the inner one light (reddish-brown). - 10

10a Labium reaches only to the middle or hind part of the metasternum (not reaching the abdomen). Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is smooth or granulated. Smaller (12-14(?16) mm - one of the smallest species of the genus).

Leptoglossus brevirostris Barber, 1918

Distribution. The Southern United States from California to Texas, Mexico.

Host plants are poorly studied, information about them is inconsistent. Reliable data on the breeding of the species is available only for mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum (Whittaker, 1984). Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983) reported findings of this species on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). In “The Coreidae of Honduras” (Linares and Orozco, 2017), corn as a host plant is mentioned.

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris: appearance, head and 1st antennomere, rostrum

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

10b Labium is beyond the hind margin of the metasternum. Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is serrate. Pronotum often with large blurred light spot in the center. Larger - unfortunately, I could not find exact information on the variability of size of this species. Walker's description indicates a size of "9 lines" - about 19 mm (I assume that in the British Museum's catalog of bugs specimens, the line corresponds to 1/12 of an inch). Since the species has been described from a single female (and males are usually slightly smaller), I assume that sizes may vary from (17?)18 to 20(21?) mm (as in L. oppositus).

Leptoglossus concolor (Walker, 1871)

Distribution. Previously, all reliable records from the United States referred to Florida. However, the modern distribution of the species needs to be clarified. The specimen that probably belongs to this species was collected in Arizona (https://bugguide.net/node/view/1451478). The species was first recorded from the United States by Hussey (1956) as Leptoglossus stigma (Herbst, 1784), although in the modern concept, this species occurs only in South America (Packauskas, 2010). Outside the United States, L. concolor is widespread in Central America and the Caribbean.

Host plants are poorly studied. Coccoloba uvifera, Gymnanthes lucida, Chiococca alba, Psidium guajava, Litchi chinensis, Bixa orellana, Anacardium occidentale have been mentioned.

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, head and 1st antennomere

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, rostrum

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, pronotum with light spot

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, hind tibia

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Notes on species of the genus Leptoglossus occurring south of the USA.

Most of the 61 known species of the genus are distributed only in the tropics of Central and South America. And almost half of them (27) were described relatively recently, from 1969 (revision by Richard Charles Allen) to 2014 (revision by Harry Brailovsky). Generally, information about these species is highly scarce, including their distribution, variability, and biology. Moreover, there is no reason to think that all existing species of the genus have been described to date. Therefore, it seems to me so far impossible to compile an identification key such as the one presented above, even for Mexico only. But it will probably be helpful to list the species recorded from Mexico, indicating their features (as far as they are clear to me). It should be kept in mind that many little-known species described from Central America (from Panama to Guatemala) can also be found in Mexico, especially in the south (from Quintana Roo and Yucatan to Chiapas). There are currently seven such species. Six more are found in the Caribbean. The others are known only in South America. A review and key to identifying Mexican species (already somewhat outdated) were published by Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983).

There are nine species of the genus that aren't known in the U.S. but known at the moment in Mexico (three species from the U.S. - fulvicornis, ashmeadi, corculus aren't known in Mexico):

alatus group

Leptoglossus usingeri Yonke, 1981. A poorly studied species, described from Mexico State (Temascaltepec), was later found near the same place (Valle de Bravo). It is easily distinguished from other North American species by combining the pronotal lateral angle elongated into a sharp spine (as in L. gonagra) and coloration: pronotal disc with a broad transverse light stripe, corium with a straight transverse light fascia (as in L. phyllopus). Both anterolateral and posterolateral margins of the pronotum are serrate.

Holotype of L. usingeri: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187685&ImageID=179806

cinctus group

Leptoglossus cinctus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1836). This group of species (as well as the following one) is distinguished by the presence of light spots on the sides of the thorax. L. cinctus can be distinguished from other North American species by the combination of the coloration of the pronotum and corium. Almost all part of the pronotum (except pronotal margins) in front of lateral corners is of contrasting yellowish color. Corium with more or less developed straight transverse light fascia. The species is known in Mexico from Nayarit and southwards (to the south, it reaches Argentina).

lineosus group

Species of this Central American group are very easily distinguished by a specific bright pattern on elytra formed by light transverse fascia and contrastingly light (in relation to the background) veins.

Leptoglossus lineosus (Stål, 1862). It is distinguished from other species of the group by the combination of the lateral angle of elytra elongated into a sharp spine, narrow transverse light stripe on the pronotum, and smooth posterolateral margin of the pronotum. Northward it reaches Nayarit and San Luis Potosi. Southward it is reliably known to Oaxaca and Yucatan. Reported from Honduras (Linares and Orozco, 2017).

Leptoglossus talamancanus Brailovsky & Barrera, 1998. Similar to the previous species, the pronotum is without the transverse light stripe, and the antennae are more monochromatic. The species is described from Costa Rica, in 2020 reported from Mexico (van der Heyden).

Leptoglossus subauratus Distant, 1881. The transverse light stripe on the pronotum is much wider than that of L. lineosus. Its posterolateral margin is serrated.Known distribution is from Costa Rica to southern Mexico (Chiapas, Yucatan).

clypealis group

Leptoglossus crestalis Brailovsky and Barrera, 2004. A poorly studied species known only from Mexico (Veracruz) and Guatemala (Brailovsky and van der Heyden, 2019). Similar to L. occidentalis, it differs in the thickened monochromatic reddish 1st antennal segment, shorter and flattened pubescence of the pronotum, and broader relative to inner, outer dilatation of hind tibia.

Holotype of L. crestalis: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187679&ImageID=225578

dilaticollis group

Leptoglossus dilaticollis Guérin-Méneville, 1831. The species is closely related to L. fulvicornis, belonging to the same group, and probably also feeding on magnolias. It can be easily distinguished from all known species of the genus by unusually broadened lateral corners of the pronotum, which look like large rounded dentate lobes. Corium has a straight transverse light fascia. The distribution (and even presence) of this species in Mexico needs clarification. Allen (1969) mentions one male collected in Oaxaca. Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983) suggest that this species (like L. fulvicornis) is absent from Mexico (without commenting on Allen's indication). The species is also recorded from Panama and Brazil (Packauskas, 2010). There is a reliable observation in Colombia (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8090884).

stigma group

It’s the most numerous (20 species, about one-third of the variety of the genus) and the most taxonomically complex group.

Leptoglossus conspersus Stål, 1870. Very similar to L. zonatus, most reliably distinguished by the structure of the genitalia (Allen, 1969). The external differences are the larger lighter spots of the pronotum (occupying most of its disk) and the monochromatic dark 2nd segment of the antennae (in sharp contrast to the lighter parts of the 3rd and 4th segments). Recorded from San Luis Potosi and Jalisco and southwards (to South America).

Leptoglossus absconditus Brailovsky & Barrera, 2004. The species is known only from two specimens from Oaxaca (San Antonio Castilla). Very closely related to L. concolor and L. stigma (see Brailovsky, 2014 for details).

Holotype of L. absconditus: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187716&ImageID=179476

Leptoglossus cinctus © Ísis Meri Medri

Leptoglossus lineosus © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Leptoglossus talamancanus © Emanuel Rodríguez

Leptoglossus subauratus © jmmaes

Leptoglossus dilaticollis © Matheus M. Santos

Leptoglossus conspersus © Joaquín Movia

Leptoglossus cinctus

© Ísis Meri Medri, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus lineosus

© Juan Cruzado Cortés, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus talamancanus

© Emanuel Rodríguez, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus subauratus

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus dilaticollis

© Matheus M. Santos, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus conspersus

© Joaquín Movia, CC BY-NC

LITERATURE

Allen, R.C. 1969. A revision of the genus Leptoglossus Guérin (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Entomologia Americana, 45, 35–140. Available at: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/part/177213

Baranowski, R.M. & Slater, J.A. 1986. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. Vol. 12. Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Florida, 82 pp. Available at: https://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000092/00001

Brailovsky, H. 2014. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms, Zootaxa 3794 (1), pp. 143-178. Available at: https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CFDF4BDB2DD822FF16FA9DAFB5F99D

Brailovsky, H. 2016, The genus Anisoscelis Latreille (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini): new species, taxonomical arrangements, distributional records and key, Zootaxa 4144 (2), pp. 195-210 Available at: http://tb.plazi.org/GgServer/html/4C3687F47077CA30FF77D0A8FA6BF929

Brailovsky, H. & Barrera, E. 2013. New species of Narnia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Mexico and key to the known species of the genus, Zootaxa 3736 (3), pp. 285-290. Available at: https://treatment.plazi.org/id/7756305CFFDDFFF2FF0B0265FA0E9BFA

Brailovsky H., Sánchez C. 1983. Hemiptera-Heteroptera de México XXIX. Revisión de la familia Coreidae Leach. Parte 4. Tribu Anisoscelidini Amyot-Serville. Anales del Instituto de Biología. UNAM. Serie zoología, 53: 219-275.

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