Common Kingsnake

Lampropeltis getula

Summary 5

Lampropeltis getula (Common names include eastern kingsnake,common kingsnake,chain kingsnake, (more)) is a harmless colubrid species found in the United States and Mexico. It has long been a favorite among collectors. Eight subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.

Lampropeltis getula 6



Lampropeltis getula, commonly known as the eastern kingsnake,[2]common kingsnake,[3] or chain kingsnake[4] (more), is a harmless colubridspeciesendemic to the United States and Mexico. It has long been a favorite among collectors.[4] Eight subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.[5]


Description[edit]





L. g. getula can be quite docile even when caught wild.

Adult specimens can range from 51 to 197 cm (20 to 78 in) in length.[6][7]Speckled Kingsnakes are the smallest race on average, at 91.5 cm (36.0 in) (in snout-to-vent length) on average, while the nominate is the largest, at 107 cm (42 in) on average.[7] Specimens up to 208.2 cm (82 inches) have been recorded.[8] Weight can vary from 285 g (10.1 oz) in a small specimen of 87.2 cm (34.3 in) in length, to 2,268 g (5.000 lb) in large specimens, of over 153 cm (60 in) in length.[9][7]

The color pattern consists of a glossy black, blue-black or dark brown ground color overlaid with a series of 23-52 white chain-like rings.[4][10] King snakes from the Coastal Plain have wider bands, while those found in mountainous areas have thinner bands or may be completely black.


Common names[edit]

Eastern Kingsnake,[2] Common Kingsnake,[3] Chain Kingsnake,[4] Kingsnake, Carolina Kingsnake, Chain Snake, Bastard Horn Snake, Black Kingsnake, Black Moccasin, Common Chain Snake, Cow Sucker, Eastern Kingsnake, Horse Racer, Master Snake, North American Kingsnake, Oakleaf Rattler, Pied Snake, Pine Snake, Racer, Rattlesnake Pilot, Thunder-and-Lightning Snake, Thunderbolt, Thunder Snake, Wamper, Wampum Snake.[10] Also In North Carolina it is called the Pied Piper.


Geographic range[edit]

Found in the United States in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, portions of Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, south and southwest Illinois, southern Indiana, southern Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, southern and western Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, southern Ohio, southeastern Oklahoma, southern Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, southern Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. Also found in northern Mexico, including all of Baja California.[1]


Habitat[edit]

Open areas are preferred, particularly grassland, but also chaparral, oak woodland, abandoned farms, desert, low mountains, sand, and any type of riparian zone, including swamps, canals and streams.


Diet[edit]

They eat other snakes, including venomous snakes. They have developed a hunting technique to avoid being bitten by clamping down on the jaws of the venomous prey, but even if bitten, they are immune to the venom. They also eat amphibians, turtle eggs, lizards, and small mammals, which they kill by constriction.[11]


Reproduction[edit]


Oviparous, females lay up to several dozen eggs that hatch after 2-2.5 months of incubation. Hatchlings are brightly colored and feed on small snakes, lizards and rodents.[4]


Captivity[edit]

Long a favorite among collectors, they do well in captivity, living for up to 25 years or more. Some of the most popular kingsnakes kept in captivity are California, Brook's, Florida and Mexican black kingsnakes.[4]


Subspecies[edit]

Subspecies[5]Authority[5]Common name[5]Geographic rangeL. g. californiae(Blainville, 1835)California kingsnakeL. g. floridanaBlanchard, 1919Florida kingsnakeL. g. getula(Linnaeus, 1766)Eastern kingsnakeL. g. holbrookiStejneger, 1902Speckled kingsnakeL. g. nigra(Yarrow, 1882)Black kingsnakeL. g. nigritaZweifel & Norris, 1955Mexican black kingsnakeL. g. splendida(Baird & Girard, 1853)Desert kingsnakeL. g. meansiKrysko & Judd, 2006Apalachicola Lowlands KingsnakeApalachicola Lowlands, Florida


See also[edit]


References[edit]

Hubbs, Brian. 2009. Common Kingsnakes. Tricolor Books, Tempe, Arizona.



  1. ^ abLampropeltis getula at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 29 June 2008.


  2. ^ abConant R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. (First published in 1958). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 429 pp + 48 plates. ISBN 0-395-19979-4 (hardcover), ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (paperback).


  3. ^ abBehler JL, King FW. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 743 pp. LCCCN 79-2217. ISBN 0-394-50824-6.


  4. ^ abcdefMehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.


  5. ^ abcd"Lampropeltis getula". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 29 June 2008. 


  6. ^Burnie D, Wilson DE. 2001. Animal. Dorling Kindersley Publishing. 624 pp. ISBN 0-7894-7764-5.


  7. ^ abc[1]


  8. ^[2]


  9. ^[3]


  10. ^ abWright AH, Wright AA. 1957. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. 2 volumes. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates. (7th printing, 1985). 1,105 pp. ISBN 0-8014-0463-0.


  11. ^Schmidt, K.P. and D.D. Davis. 1941. Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York. p. 176.


Sources and Credits

  1. (c) 1999 California Academy of Sciences, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA), http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?seq_num=1116&one=T
  2. (c) 1999 California Academy of Sciences, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA), http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?seq_num=1179&one=T
  3. (c) 2010 William Flaxington, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?seq_num=162817&one=T
  4. (c) Welch, Jenna L., some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA), https://collections.nmnh.si.edu/services/media.php?env=herps&irn=10326746
  5. (c) Wikipedia, some rights reserved (CC BY-SA), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lampropeltis_getula
  6. (c) Unknown, some rights reserved (CC BY-SA), http://eol.org/data_objects/32100113

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