Journal archives for February 2019

February 24, 2019

The Cecropia

Cecropia is an interesting genus, opportunistic in some situations, pioneer in others. This is due to the fact that their seeds germinate and the species develops under sunshine.
When one has new soil, for example a silting of a lake or in the margin of a river, the Cecropia has advantage over other species. This also occurs when a clearing is opened in the woods due to the fall of one or more trees, allowing the insolation to reach the ground. Cecropia survive on poor soils and are part of the early stages of ecological succession.



On the other hand, its life can be short because, providing shade for the growth of other species that do not develop under insolation in the first stage, it is surpassed in height and, consequently, shaded, which causes it to perish. Typically, in the forest, the life of Cecropia lasts for about twelve years.
Many individuals of the genus Cecropia live in symbiosis with ants, which inhabit the hollow of their stems and, in turn, protect them from insects that try to feed on their leaves.
Moreover, the fruits of Cecropia are appreciated by several species of birds, and its leaves are part of the menu of the sloth and the howler monkey.



To access the observations, "explore" filtering for the person's name "nelson_wisnik" and the Description/tags "Cecropia". You are welcome.

Posted on February 24, 2019 01:35 by nelson_wisnik nelson_wisnik | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 05, 2019

Edessa leucogramma reproduction

On November 12, 2018, I noticed a "Leucogramma Edessa" laying eggs near the entrance of the building where I live. This gave me the opportunity to follow the development of the offsprings.



The whole process, from the laying of the eggs, the development of the nymphs in the various instars, until they all left, took fourteen days.



Some observations were photographed using a "Currency Detecting Microscope 60X"* coupled to a cell phone.



To access the observations, "explore" filtering for the person's name "nelson_wisnik" and the
Description/tags "stinky_eggs". You are welcome.

  • This microscope was given to me by Renée Codsi, to whom I thank very much

Posted on February 05, 2019 21:20 by nelson_wisnik nelson_wisnik | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 02, 2019

The friendly capybara

On the last December 3rd, I registered an interesting observation, which came to become the "iNat Observation of the Day" (observation 18808638), showing a Common Slider basking in the sun on the back of a Capybara. Reptiles need to warm up and, for this, usually climb trunks of trees, rocks or beaches, for example. The capybara did not appear to be bothered by the situation, for at one point it moved and the tortoise left its back, but about twenty minutes later, there it was again "riding" the capybara, which was still.



This interaction with the turtle may be surprising but the capybaras interact with other species in at least two other situations.
Capybara are known to be tick-borne and, although their coat is thick, apparently they feel bothered by them.
Thus, capybaras allow birds to collect ticks, staying still and even positioning themselves in a way to facilitate collection. Cattle Tyrant, Southern Caracara, Yellow-headed Caracara and Black Vulture were observed collecting ticks on capybaras.
Another type of interaction does not involve ticks. During feeding, the capybaras, as well as the cattle, pull the grass, revolving the soil and exposing worms, which attracts birds to eat them, especially the Cattle Egret and the Cattle Tyrant (that is why they have this popular name).
To access the observations, "explore" filtering for the person's name "nelson_wisnik" and the Description/tags "capy_tick". You are welcome.

Posted on February 02, 2019 10:01 by nelson_wisnik nelson_wisnik | 1 comment | Leave a comment

February 01, 2019

Cobweb spider offsprings

In a previous post (January 31, 2019), we reported the biodiversity on a sapling of a Calabur tree observed throughout the second half of the last year. Among the species observed there was the Cobweb spider.
On December the 16th, 2018, we noticed that the Cobweb spider had an ootheca, and then we began to follow it daily, although we did not record the observations every day.



On December the 26th, the eggs hatched and a few dozen tiny cobwebs appeared. Although the baby spiders were still there the next day, the mom was gone.




Life goes on, another Cobweb spider with an ootheca was observed on January the 3rd.
To access the observations, "explore" filtering for the person's name "nelson_wisnik", the Description/tags "calabura" and "ootheca", and selecting the species "Cobweb". You are welcome.
Posted on February 01, 2019 12:44 by nelson_wisnik nelson_wisnik | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 23, 2019

The Euterpe

Reading of the book "The Atlantic Forest of South America" 1, from the Chapter #34, "Harvesting and Conservation of Heart Palm", which deals with the heart of palm of the Euterpe edulis, I learned about the possibility of hybridization through cross-pollination between Euterpe edulis, the "jussara" palm of the Atlantic Forest, and the Euterpe oleracea, the "acai" of the Amazon.



Althought I knew they were similar, I could not think of hybridizing because they are endemic of ecosystems distinct and very far apart. So, the hibridizing occurs in artificial plantations, intentionally or not.
Even though their similarity, these two species were explored very differently by the populations of their ecosystems, the peoples of the Amazon, said "primitives", and the peoples of the Atlantic Forest region, said "developed".  The latter almost led the species to extinction [2].
At present, some native peoples of southern and southeastern Brazil are allowed to pick up palm "jussara" in the Atlantic Forest, but the collection is also done illegally, hastily, with processing done in the forest itself, having occurred cases of botulism due to lack of hygiene.
I remember that in my childhood my mother bought the palm heart jussara "in natura" and cooked it at home (just boiled in water and salt), we were not at risk, consumption was not great and there was no awareness of sustainability.
Due to the extinction risk of Euterpe edulis, an alternative palmetto has been offered on the market, from the "pupunha" palm, the Bactris gasipaes, with good acceptance.
The "acai" product has also been offered in the region of the Atlantic Forest, but produced from the "jussara" palm tree, taking advantage of the "acai" fame, without jeopardizing the sustainability of the "jussara".
The juice of the "acai" needs to be kept refrigerated, frozen, a very high cost to bring the Amazonian "acai" to the region of the Atlantic Forest, but it is exported to the United States and Italy.

To access the observations, "explore" filtering for the person's name "nelson_wisnik" and the Description/tags "E_edulis" or "E_oleracea". You are welcome.

Figure caption: acai plantation in the Marajo archipelago

[1] The Atlantic Forest of South America *
      Biodiversity Status, Threats, and Outlook
      Galindo-Leal, C. and de Gusmão Camara, I. - Editors
      Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
      (c) Conservation International, 2003
      ISBN 1-55963-988-1 / ISBN 1-55963-989-X

(*) This book was given to me by Dr. Carlos Galindo-Leal, to whom I thank very much

[2] https://de-barco-na-amazonia.blogspot.com/2009/06/quem-tem-ensinar.html

Posted on February 23, 2019 00:41 by nelson_wisnik nelson_wisnik | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 06, 2019

Parasitized eggs

In a Calabur tree there were insect eggs that, because of their dark coloration, seemed to have been parasitized. They were collected and monitored until its outbreak.




It was confirmed that the eggs were parasitized, apparently by insects of two genera, Gryon and Telenomus, which are still pending confirmation.
I did gather the eggs but the microscope photos and the identification of the genera were done by the entomologist Dr. Valmir A. Costa, and they are presented here with his permission.
Comments and any help to the identifications are welcome.




To access the observations, "explore" filtering for the person's name "nelson_wisnik" and the Description/tags "calabura" and "parasite". You are welcome.

Posted on February 06, 2019 01:54 by nelson_wisnik nelson_wisnik | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 16, 2019

The Jari channel

Upstream and not far from the mouth of the Tapajós River, a tributary of the Amazon river, is the "Furo do Jari", a channel that allows the entrance of water from the Amazon River into the Tapajós River. The length of the Jari channel is about 17 nautical miles (approximately 19 miles, or 31 kilometers), and it give access to the communities Arapixuna and Carariaca.



The Amazon river has "whitewater", while the Tapajós river is a "clearwater" river, which means, besides its appearances, that they have quite different chemical, physical and organoleptic properties [1]. Being so, the seazonal variation in the mixture of the waters in the surrounding floodplains results in an overall biodiversity enhancement.



I had opportunities to visit the Jari channel and did, up to now (January 2019), 55 observations of 36 different species.

[1] www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3541 (on-line)

To access the observations, "explore" filtering for the person's name "nelson_wisnik" and the Description/tags "Furo_Jari". You are welcome.

 To visualize the Jari channel, you can see the videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYiYUOTKJVw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvl_NIhfI7A
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6qVgjfg26U
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ocj534M5x6Q
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWyRdhXLMSk

Posted on February 16, 2019 20:09 by nelson_wisnik nelson_wisnik | 0 comments | Leave a comment