June 29, 2018

Subspecies - Other Large Herbivores

I like to help with the identification of mammal species, but I'm not always up to date with what the latest subspecies are, or I forget which ones are "safe" to use.
Below is my attempt at making sense of the most commonly encountered subspecies for Mammals in southern Africa:
This list is not "scientifically accurate", but instead just a guideline for myself (and maybe others) to follow.



African Elephant


Loxodonta africana
No subspecies.
(The Forrest Elephant is a seperate species.)




African Buffalo


Syncerus caffer caffer
Good to use.
From southern (and eastern) Africa.




Hippopotamus


Hippopotamus amphibius capensis
Bad, do not use.
The defined subspecies are not commonly accepted, because the subspecies are not easily distinguishable from each other and the ranges are unknown.




Warthog


Phacochoerus africanus sundevallii
Good to use.
From southern Africa.




Bushpig


Potamochoerus larvatus koiropotamus
Good to use.
From southern Africa.




Black Wildebeest


Connochaetes gnou
No subspecies.




Blue Wildebeest


Connochaetes taurinus taurinus
Good to use.
From southern Africa.
Has a black beard underneath the face and neck.




Giraffe


Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa
Not good to use, lots of uncertainty.
From southern Africa, excluding Namibia.
Coat colous varies.


Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis
Not good to use, lots of uncertainty.
From Namibia.
Believed to have a lighter coat colour.




Mountain Zebra


Equus zebra hartmannae
Good to use.
From the western parts of southern Africa.
Legs striped to the hooves and white underneath. No shadow stripes. Grid-iron patern on above the tail. Brown on the top of the nose, with black mouth. Dewlap on throaght.
Larger in size, with thinner black stripes on the rear compared to the other subspecies?


Equus zebra zebra
Good to use.
From the southern parts of Africa.
Legs striped to the hooves and white underneath. No shadow stripes. Grid-iron patern on above the tail. Brown on the top of the nose, with black mouth. Dewlap on throaght.
Smaller in size, with thicker black stripes on the rear compared to the other subspecies?




Plains Zebra


Equus quagga chapmani
Bad, not well defined or accepted.
From the north and western Zimbabwe to Mozambique.


Equus quagga burchellii
Bad, not well defined or accepted.
From the central, north and east South Africa to western Zimbabwe, Botswana and northern Namibia.


Equus quagga crawshaii
Bad, not well defined or accepted.
From northern Mozambique (up to Gorongoza).


Equus quagga quagga
Bad, do not use. Extinct.
From the southern parts of South Africa.




White Rhinoceros


Ceratotherium simum simum
Good to use.
From southern Africa.




Black Rhinoceros


Diceros bicornis minor
Good to use, when possible.
From the northeastern parts of South Africa to Zimbabwe.


Diceros bicornis bicornis
Good to use, when possible.
From the drier south and west of southern Africa and Namibia.
Maybe also translocated to Swaziland?


Diceros bicornis michaeli
Good to use, when possible.
From outside southern Africa (not native).
Might be present in private reserves.
Posted on June 29, 2018 08:23 AM by henrydelange henrydelange | 0 comments | Leave a comment

June 01, 2018

Subspecies - Antelope

I like to help with the identification of mammal species, but I'm not always up to date with what the latest subspecies are, or I forget which ones are "safe" to use.
Below is my attempt at making sense of the most commonly encountered subspecies for Mammals in southern Africa:
This list is not "scientifically accurate", but instead just a guideline for myself (and maybe others) to follow.



Klipspringer


Oreotragus oreotragus oreotragus
Good to use, when possible.
In the south-west of South Africa (Northern Cape, Western Cape and Eastern Cape).
Be careful with boundary between subspecies.


Oreotragus oreotragus tyleri
Good to use, when possible.
In the far north-west of southern Africa (Namibia and Angola).
Be careful with boundary between subspecies.


Oreotragus oreotragus transvaalensis
Good to use, when possible.
In the north-east of South Africa (Limpopo, North West, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal and southern Mozambique).
Be careful with boundary between subspecies.


Oreotragus oreotragus stevensoni
Good to use, when possible.
In the central north of southern Africa (Zimbabwe and Botswana).
Be careful with boundary between subspecies.




Blesbok / Bontebok


Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi
Can be used, but be careful with hybrids.
Known as Blesbok.
Found in the central parts of south Africa.
Can be distinguished from Bontebok based on colour.
(Hybrids do exist.)


Damaliscus pygargus pygargus
Can be used, but be careful with hybrids.
Known as Bontebok.
Found in the southern parts of south Africa.
Can be distinguished from Blesbok based on colour.
(Hybrids do exist.)




Hartebeest


Alcelaphus buselaphus caama
Good to use.
Found throughout most of southern Africa (especially the drier areas).


Alcelaphus buselaphus lichtensteinii
Good to use.
Found in the far North of Kruger and towards Zambia, Malawi and northern Mozambique.




Oribi


Ourebia ourebi ourebi
Good to use.
From South Africa and South-Central Mozambique.


Ourebia ourebi hastatab
Good to use.
From South-East Zimbabwe and North Mozambique.


Ourebia ourebi rutila
Good to use.
From Namibia, Botswana and North-West Zimbabwe.




Steenbok


Raphicerus campestris campestris
Not used, but can be used.
For the southern African population. To distinguish it from eastern African population.
(There might be other more precise subspecies described in the future.)




Suni


Nesotragus moschatus livingstonianus
Good to use, when possible.
From northern Zimbabwe.


Nesotragus moschatus zuluensis
Good to use, when possible.
From KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique and southern Zimbabwe.




Common Duiker


Sylvicapra grimmia grimmia
Bad, do not use.
Not well defined (especially at boundaries).
From the southern parts of South Africa (Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Northern Cape).
These are apparently "greyer" than other animals, but to my eye they seem much more reddish.


Sylvicapra grimmia caffra
Bad, do not use.
Not well defined (especially at boundaries).
From the northern parts of South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, North West, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, southern Mozambique and eastern Zimbabwe).


Sylvicapra grimmia steinhardti
Bad, do not use.
Not well defined (especially at boundaries).
From the northern parts of South Africa (northern parts of Northern Cape, Namibia, Angola and parts of Botswana).
These are apparently "sandy-coloured".




Blue Duiker


Philantomba monticola monticola
Good to use, when possible.
Be careful, there seems to be overlap.
From Western Cape and Eastern Cape.
Dark blue-grey above.


Philantomba monticola bicolor
Good to use, when possible.
Be careful, there seems to be overlap.
From KwaZulu-Natal (east coast).
Smoky-blue and slightly brownish especially towards the rear.


Philantomba monticola hecki
Good to use, when possible.
Be careful, there seems to be overlap.
From north KwaZulu-Natal to Mozambique.
Richly colored, rusty-brown.




Red Duiker


Cephalophus natalensis natalensis
Good to use, when possible.
From KwaZulu-Natal and south / eastern Mozambique.


Cephalophus natalensis robertsi
Good to use, when possible.
From Mozambique and north of the Limpopo River.




Springbok


Antidorcas marsupialis marsupialis
Good to use, when possible.
From the far south.
(Be careful of breeding and game farms.)


Antidorcas marsupialis hofmeyri
Good to use, when possible.
From Botswana, Namibia and the Northern Cape.
(Be careful of breeding and game farms.)


Antidorcas marsupialis angolensis
Good to use, when possible.
From Angola.
(Be careful of breeding and game farms.)




Impala


Aepyceros melampus melampus
Good to use.
From the North-Eastern parts of southern Africa.
Usually no black marking on the nose, but it can be visible to a varying degree in some animals.


Aepyceros melampus petersi
Good to use.
Found at Etosha.
Large dark black area on the nose.




Eland


Tragelaphus oryx oryx
Good to use.
From South Africa, Namibia and Botswanna.
Tawny fur with practically no stripes.
(Validity of different subspecies are in dispute.)




Kudu


Tragelaphus strepsiceros strepsiceros
Good to use.
Only subspecies in southern Africa.
No (or very little) stripes on the sides of the body.




Nyala


Tragelaphus angasii
No subspecies.




Bushbuck


Tragelaphus scriptus (???)
Bad, do not use.
The taxonomy is still very unclear.
The Bushbuck from north and west Africa is Tragelaphus scriptus.
Tragelaphus sylvaticus is the subspecies present in southern Africa.
On iNaturalist the taxonomy tree seems to treat Tragelaphus sylvaticus as a subspecies of Tragelaphus scriptus instead.
These will have to be cleaned up once the taxonomy settles down a bit.
Some people on iNaturalist push for the use of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus to make it easier later down the line to split the subspecies.
Personally I feel even in Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus the animals from the North seem to differ noticeably from the South, so I'm not sold on the grouping as it is now.




Gemsbok


Oryx gazella gazella
Not used, but can be used.
Oryx gazella beisa used to be the other subspecies, but it is now considered a separate species, leaving only Oryx gazella gazella.
No other subspecies have been identified in southern Africa.




Waterbuck


Kobus ellipsiprymnus ellipsiprymnus
Good to use.
Only subspecies in southern Africa (except towards Zambia).
Has a clear white ring around the tail.


Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa
Good to use.
Towards Zambia.
Does not have a white ring, but the entire area is white below the tail.




Tsessebe


Damaliscus lunatus lunatus
Good to use.
Only subspecies in southern Africa (although there are others to the North).




Roan Antelope


Hippotragus equinus equinus and Hippotragus equinus cottoni
Bad, do not use.
Possible problems with hybrids and validity of the declared subspecies.
The current understanding is that these two subspecies in the southern African region often treated as one (and hybridized) by conservation and especially private owners. It also seems that there is little significant genetic difference between the two, but more research is needed.




Sable Antelope


Hippotragus niger niger
Good to use.
The southern African subspecies (there are others).
Be careful for possible hybrids.




Grey Rhebok


Pelea capreolus
No subspecies.




Southern Reedbuck


Redunca arundinum arundinum
Good to use, in South Africa.
Only subspecies in South Africa.
(Not sure where the two subspecies are seperated outside South Africa.)


Redunca arundinum occidentalis
Good to use, in South Africa.
The northern form, not found in South Africa.
(Not sure where the two subspecies are seperated outside South Africa.)




Mountain Reedbuck


Redunca fulvorufula fulvorufula
Good to use.
Only subspecies in southern Africa (although there are others to the North).




Cape Grysbok


Raphicerus melanotis
No subspecies.




Sharpe’s Grysbok


Raphicerus sharpei
No subspecies.
(There are some subspecies suggested, but the validity is still unsure.)
Posted on June 01, 2018 02:29 PM by henrydelange henrydelange | 0 comments | Leave a comment

March 17, 2018

iNatualist Links

Some parts of the iNaturalist website isn't easily accessible from the main user interface.
The idea of this page is to keep track of a list of useful links:

iNaturalist Blog
https://www.inaturalist.org/blog

Comments
See and search comments.
https://www.inaturalist.org/comments?mine=true

Heatmaps
Currently the heatmap radius is very small and the heatmap effect goes away fairly quickly, showing only the observation pins.
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/map?user_id=henrydelange#7/-33.654/20.33
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/map?project_id=14074#8/-33.504/18.981

Identification Statistics
This page provides a more detailed view of a user's identifications.
https://www.inaturalist.org/identifications?user_id=henrydelange

Platform Statistics
https://www.inaturalist.org/stats
https://www.inaturalist.org/stats/2017
https://www.inaturalist.org/stats/2017/henrydelange

List of Applications
https://www.inaturalist.org/oauth/applications

List of Observation Fields
https://www.inaturalist.org/observation_fields

Posted on March 17, 2018 07:56 AM by henrydelange henrydelange | 0 comments | Leave a comment

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